25. Command Line Utilities¶
Several command line utilities which are provided with FreeNAS® are demonstrated in this section.
The following utilities can be used for benchmarking and performance testing:
- Iperf: used for measuring maximum TCP and UDP bandwidth performance
- Netperf: a tool for measuring network performance
- IOzone: filesystem benchmark utility used to perform a broad filesystem analysis
- arcstat: used to gather ZFS ARC statistics
The following utilities are specific to RAID controllers:
- tw_cli:_used to monitor and maintain 3ware RAID controllers
- MegaCli: used to configure and manage Avago MegaRAID SAS family of RAID controllers
This section also describes these utilities:
- freenas-debug: the backend used to dump FreeNAS® debugging information
- tmux: a terminal multiplexer similar to GNU screen
- Dmidecode: reports information about system hardware as described in the system’s BIOS
Iperf is a utility for measuring maximum TCP and UDP bandwidth performance. It can be used to chart network throughput over time. For example, you can use it to test the speed of different types of shares to determine which type best performs on your network.
FreeNAS® includes the Iperf server. To perform network testing, you will need to install an Iperf client on a desktop system that has network access to the FreeNAS® system. This section will demonstrate how to use the xjperf GUI client as it works on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and BSD systems.
Since this client is Java-based, the appropriate JRE must be installed on the client computer.
Linux and BSD users will need to install the iperf package using their operating system’s package management system.
To start xjperf on Windows: unzip the downloaded file, start Command Prompt in Run as administrator mode, cd to the unzipped folder, and run jperf.bat.
To start xjperf on Mac OS X, Linux, or BSD, unzip the downloaded file, cd to the unzipped directory, type chmod u+x jperf.sh, and run ./jperf.sh.
Once the client is ready, you need to start the Iperf server on FreeNAS®. To see the available server options, open Shell and type:
iperf --help | more Usage: iperf [-s|-c host] [options] iperf [-h|--help] [-v|--version] Client/Server: -f, --format [kmKM] format to report: Kbits, Mbits, KBytes, MBytes -i, --interval # seconds between periodic bandwidth reports -l, --len #[KM] length of buffer to read or write (default 8 KB) -m, --print_mss print TCP maximum segment size (MTU - TCP/IP header) -o, --output <filename> output the report or error message to this specified file -p, --port # server port to listen on/connect to -u, --udp use UDP rather than TCP -w, --window #[KM] TCP window size (socket buffer size) -B, --bind <host> bind to <host>, an interface or multicast address -C, --compatibility for use with older versions does not sent extra msgs -M, --mss # set TCP maximum segment size (MTU - 40 bytes) -N, --nodelay set TCP no delay, disabling Nagle's Algorithm -V, --IPv6Version Set the domain to IPv6 Server specific: -s, --server run in server mode -U, --single_udp run in single threaded UDP mode -D, --daemon run the server as a daemon Client specific: -b, --bandwidth #[KM] for UDP, bandwidth to send at in bits/sec (default 1 Mbit/sec, implies -u) -c, --client <host> run in client mode, connecting to <host> -d, --dualtest Do a bidirectional test simultaneously -n, --num #[KM] number of bytes to transmit (instead of -t) -r, --tradeoff Do a bidirectional test individually -t, --time # time in seconds to transmit for (default 10 secs) -F, --fileinput <name> input the data to be transmitted from a file -I, --stdin input the data to be transmitted from stdin -L, --listenport # port to receive bidirectional tests back on -P, --parallel # number of parallel client threads to run -T, --ttl # time-to-live, for multicast (default 1) -Z, --linux-congestion <algo> set TCP congestion control algorithm (Linux only) Miscellaneous: -x, --reportexclude [CDMSV] exclude C(connection) D(data) M(multicast) S(settings) V(server) reports -y, --reportstyle C report as a Comma-Separated Values -h, --help print this message and quit -v, --version print version information and quit [KM] Indicates options that support a K or M suffix for kilo- or mega- The TCP window size option can be set by the environment variable TCP_WINDOW_SIZE. Most other options can be set by an environment variable IPERF_<long option name>, such as IPERF_BANDWIDTH.
For example, to perform a TCP test and start the server in daemon mode (so that you get your prompt back), type:
iperf -sD ------------------------------------------------------------ Server listening on TCP port 5001 TCP window size: 64.0 KByte (default) ------------------------------------------------------------ Running Iperf Server as a daemon The Iperf daemon process ID: 4842
If you close Shell, the daemon process will stop. Have your environment set up (e.g. shares configured and started) before starting the iperf process.
From your desktop, open the client. Enter the IP of address of the
FreeNAS® system, specify the running time for the test under
Application layer options → Transmit
(the default test time is 10 seconds), and click the
Run Iperf! button.
shows an example of the client running on a
Windows system while an SFTP transfer is occurring on the network.
Depending upon the traffic being tested (e.g. the type of share running on your network), you may need to test UDP instead of TCP. To start the iperf server in UDP mode, use iperf -sDu as the u specifies UDP; the startup message should indicate that the server is listening for UDP datagrams. If you are not sure if the traffic that you wish to test is UDP or TCP, run this command to determine which services are running on the FreeNAS® system:
sockstat -4 | more USER COMMAND PID FD PROTO LOCAL ADDRESS FOREIGN ADDRESS root iperf 4870 6 udp4 *:5001 *:* root iperf 4842 6 tcp4 *:5001 *:* www nginx 4827 3 tcp4 127.0.0.1:15956 127.0.0.1:9042 www nginx 4827 5 tcp4 192.168.2.11:80 192.168.2.26:56964 www nginx 4827 7 tcp4 *:80 *:* root sshd 3852 5 tcp4 *:22 *:* root python 2503 5 udp4 *:* *:* root mountd 2363 7 udp4 *:812 *:* root mountd 2363 8 tcp4 *:812 *:* root rpcbind 2359 9 udp4 *:111 *:* root rpcbind 2359 10 udp4 *:886 *:* root rpcbind 2359 11 tcp4 *:111 *:* root nginx 2044 7 tcp4 *:80 *:* root python 2029 3 udp4 *:* *:* root python 2029 4 tcp4 127.0.0.1:9042 *:* root python 2029 7 tcp4 127.0.0.1:9042 127.0.0.1:15956 root ntpd 1548 20 udp4 *:123 *:* root ntpd 1548 22 udp4 192.168.2.11:123*:* root ntpd 1548 25 udp4 127.0.0.1:123 *:* root syslogd 1089 6 udp4 127.0.0.1:514 *:*
When you are finished testing, either type killall iperf or close Shell to terminate the iperf server process.
Netperf is a benchmarking utility that can be used to measure the performance of unidirectional throughput and end-to-end latency.
Before you can use the netperf command, you must start its server process using this command:
netserver Starting netserver with host 'IN(6)ADDR_ANY' port '12865' and family AF_UNSPEC
The following command will display the available options for performing tests with the netperf command. The Netperf Manual describes each option in more detail and explains how to perform many types of tests. It is the best reference for understanding how each test works and how to interpret your results. When you are finished with your tests, type killall netserver to stop the server process.
netperf -h |more Usage: netperf [global options] -- [test options] Global options: -a send,recv Set the local send,recv buffer alignment -A send,recv Set the remote send,recv buffer alignment -B brandstr Specify a string to be emitted with brief output -c [cpu_rate] Report local CPU usage -C [cpu_rate] Report remote CPU usage -d Increase debugging output -D [secs,units] * Display interim results at least every secs seconds using units as the initial guess for units per second -f G|M|K|g|m|k Set the output units -F fill_file Pre-fill buffers with data from fill_file -h Display this text -H name|ip,fam * Specify the target machine and/or local ip and family -i max,min Specify the max and min number of iterations (15,1) -I lvl[,intvl] Specify confidence level (95 or 99) (99) and confidence interval in percentage (10) -j Keep additional timing statistics -l testlen Specify test duration (>0 secs) (<0 bytes|trans) -L name|ip,fam * Specify the local ip|name and address family -o send,recv Set the local send,recv buffer offsets -O send,recv Set the remote send,recv buffer offset -n numcpu Set the number of processors for CPU util -N Establish no control connection, do 'send' side only -p port,lport* Specify netserver port number and/or local port -P 0|1 Don't/Do display test headers -r Allow confidence to be hit on result only -s seconds Wait seconds between test setup and test start -S Set SO_KEEPALIVE on the data connection -t testname Specify test to perform -T lcpu,rcpu Request netperf/netserver be bound to local/remote cpu -v verbosity Specify the verbosity level -W send,recv Set the number of send,recv buffers -v level Set the verbosity level (default 1, min 0) -V Display the netperf version and exit
For those options taking two parms, at least one must be specified; specifying one value without a comma will set both parms to that value, specifying a value with a leading comma will set just the second parm, a value with a trailing comma will set just the first. To set each parm to unique values, specify both and separate them with a comma.
For these options taking two parms, specifying one value with no comma will only set the first parms and will leave the second at the default value. To set the second value it must be preceded with a comma or be a comma-separated pair. This is to retain previous netperf behaviour.
IOzone is a disk and filesystem benchmarking tool. It can be used to test file I/O performance for the following operations: read, write, re-read, re-write, read backwards, read strided, fread, fwrite, random read, pread, mmap, aio_read, and aio_write.
FreeNAS® ships with IOzone, meaning that it can be run from Shell. When using IOzone on FreeNAS®, cd to a directory in a volume that you have permission to write to, otherwise you will get an error about being unable to write the temporary file.
Before using IOzone, read through the IOzone documentation PDF as it describes the tests, the many command line switches, and how to interpret your results.
If you have never used this tool before, these resources provide good starting points on which tests to run, when to run them, and how to interpret the results:
- How To Measure Linux Filesystem I/O Performance With iozone
- Analyzing NFS Client Performance with IOzone
- 10 iozone Examples for Disk I/O Performance Measurement on Linux
You can receive a summary of the available switches by typing the following command. As you can see from the number of options, IOzone is comprehensive and it may take some time to learn how to use the tests effectively.
Starting with version 9.2.1, FreeNAS® enables compression on newly created ZFS pools by default. Since IOzone creates test data that is compressible, this can skew test results. To configure IOzone to generate incompressible test data, include the options -+w 1 -+y 1 -+C 1.
Alternatively, consider temporarily disabling compression on the ZFS pool or dataset when running IOzone benchmarks.
If you prefer to visualize the collected data, scripts are available to render IOzone’s output in Gnuplot.
iozone -h | more iozone: help mode Usage: iozone[-s filesize_Kb] [-r record_size_Kb] [-f [path]filename] [-h] [-i test] [-E] [-p] [-a] [-A] [-z] [-Z] [-m] [-M] [-t children] [-l min_number_procs] [-u max_number_procs] [-v] [-R] [-x] [-o] [-d microseconds] [-F path1 path2...] [-V pattern] [-j stride] [-T] [-C] [-B] [-D] [-G] [-I] [-H depth] [-k depth] [-U mount_point] [-S cache_size] [-O] [-L cacheline_size] [-K] [-g maxfilesize_Kb] [-n minfilesize_Kb] [-N] [-Q] [-P start_cpu] [-e] [-c] [-b Excel.xls] [-J milliseconds] [-X write_telemetry_filename] [-w] [-W] [-Y read_telemetry_filename] [-y minrecsize_Kb] [-q maxrecsize_Kb] [-+u] [-+m cluster_filename] [-+d] [-+x multiplier] [-+p # ] [-+r] [-+t] [-+X] [-+Z] [-+w percent dedupable] [-+y percent_interior_dedup] [-+C percent_dedup_within] -a Auto mode -A Auto2 mode -b Filename Create Excel worksheet file -B Use mmap() files -c Include close in the timing calculations -C Show bytes transferred by each child in throughput testing -d # Microsecond delay out of barrier -D Use msync(MS_ASYNC) on mmap files -e Include flush (fsync,fflush) in the timing calculations -E Run extension tests -f filename to use -F filenames for each process/thread in throughput test -g # Set maximum file size (in Kbytes) for auto mode (or #m or #g) -G Use msync(MS_SYNC) on mmap files -h help -H # Use POSIX async I/O with # async operations -i # Test to run (0=write/rewrite, 1=read/re-read, 2=random-read/write 3=Read-backwards, 4=Re-write-record, 5=stride-read, 6=fwrite/re-fwrite 7=fread/Re-fread, 8=random_mix, 9=pwrite/Re-pwrite, 10=pread/Re-pread 11=pwritev/Re-pwritev, 12=preadv/Re-preadv) -I Use VxFS VX_DIRECT, O_DIRECT,or O_DIRECTIO for all file operations -j # Set stride of file accesses to (# * record size) -J # milliseconds of compute cycle before each I/O operation -k # Use POSIX async I/O (no bcopy) with # async operations -K Create jitter in the access pattern for readers -l # Lower limit on number of processes to run -L # Set processor cache line size to value (in bytes) -m Use multiple buffers -M Report uname -a output -n # Set minimum file size (in Kbytes) for auto mode (or #m or #g) -N Report results in microseconds per operation -o Writes are synch (O_SYNC) -O Give results in ops/sec. -p Purge on -P # Bind processes/threads to processors, starting with this cpu -q # Set maximum record size (in Kbytes) for auto mode (or #m or #g) -Q Create offset/latency files -r # record size in Kb or -r #k .. size in Kb or -r #m .. size in Mb or -r #g .. size in Gb -R Generate Excel report -s # file size in Kb or -s #k .. size in Kb or -s #m .. size in Mb or -s #g .. size in Gb -S # Set processor cache size to value (in Kbytes) -t # Number of threads or processes to use in throughput test -T Use POSIX pthreads for throughput tests -u # Upper limit on number of processes to run -U Mount point to remount between tests -v version information -V # Verify data pattern write/read -w Do not unlink temporary file -W Lock file when reading or writing -x Turn off stone-walling -X filename Write telemetry file. Contains lines with (offset reclen compute_time) in ascii -y # Set minimum record size (in Kbytes) for auto mode (or #m or #g) -Y filename Read telemetry file. Contains lines with (offset reclen compute_time) in ascii -z Used in conjunction with -a to test all possible record sizes -Z Enable mixing of mmap I/O and file I/O -+E Use existing non-Iozone file for read-only testing -+K Sony special. Manual control of test 8. -+m Cluster_filename Enable Cluster testing -+d File I/O diagnostic mode. (To troubleshoot a broken file I/O subsystem) -+u Enable CPU utilization output (Experimental) -+x # Multiplier to use for incrementing file and record sizes -+p # Percentage of mix to be reads -+r Enable O_RSYNC|O_SYNC for all testing. -+t Enable network performance test. Requires -+m -+n No retests selected. -+k Use constant aggregate data set size. -+q Delay in seconds between tests. -+l Enable record locking mode. -+L Enable record locking mode, with shared file. -+B Sequential mixed workload. -+A # Enable madvise. 0 = normal, 1=random, 2=sequential 3=dontneed, 4=willneed -+N Do not truncate existing files on sequential writes. -+S # Dedup-able data is limited to sharing within each numerically identified file set -+V Enable shared file. No locking. -+X Enable short circuit mode for filesystem testing ONLY ALL Results are NOT valid in this mode. -+Z Enable old data set compatibility mode. WARNING.. Published hacks may invalidate these results and generate bogus, high values for results. -+w ## Percent of dedup-able data in buffers. -+y ## Percent of dedup-able within & across files in buffers. -+C ## Percent of dedup-able within & not across files in buffers. -+H Hostname Hostname of the PIT server. -+P Service Service of the PIT server. -+z Enable latency histogram logging.
Arcstat is a script that prints out ZFS ARC statistics. Originally it was a perl script created by Sun. That perl script was ported to FreeBSD and was then ported as a Python script for use on FreeNAS®.
Watching ARC hits/misses and percentages will provide an indication of how well your ZFS pool is fetching from the ARC rather than using disk I/O. Ideally, you want as many things fetching from cache as possible. Keep your load in mind as you review the stats. For random reads, expect a miss and having to go to disk to fetch the data. For cached reads, expect it to pull out of the cache and have a hit.
Like all cache systems, the ARC takes time to fill with data. This means that it will have a lot of misses until the pool has been in use for a while. If there continues to be lots of misses and high disk I/O on cached reads, there is cause to investigate further and tune the system.
The FreeBSD ZFS Tuning Guide provides some suggestions for commonly tuned sysctl values. It should be noted that performance tuning is more of an art than a science and that any changes you make will probably require several iterations of tune and test. Be aware that what needs to be tuned will vary depending upon the type of workload and that what works for one person’s network may not benefit yours.
In particular, the value of pre-fetching depends upon the amount of memory and the type of workload, as seen in these two examples:
FreeNAS® provides two command line scripts which can be manually run from Shell:
- arc_summary.py: provides a summary of the statistics
- arcstat.py: used to watch the statistics in real time
The advantage of these scripts is that they can be used to provide real time (right now) information, whereas the current GUI reporting mechanism is designed to only provide graphs charted over time.
This forum post demonstrates some examples of using these scripts with hints on how to interpret the results.
To view the help for arcstat.py:
arcstat.py -h Usage: arcstat [-hvx] [-f fields] [-o file] [-s string] [interval [count]] -h: Print this help message -v: List all possible field headers and definitions -x: Print extended stats -f: Specify specific fields to print (see -v) -o: Redirect output to the specified file -s: Override default field separator with custom character or string Examples: arcstat -o /tmp/a.log 2 10 arcstat -s "," -o /tmp/a.log 2 10 arcstat -v arcstat -f time,hit%,dh%,ph%,mh% 1
To view ARC statistics in real time, specify an interval and a count. This command will display every 1 second for a count of five.
arcstat.py 1 5 time read miss miss% dmis dm% pmis pm% mmis mm% arcsz c 06:19:03 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 153M 6.6G 06:19:04 257 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 153M 6.6G 06:19:05 193 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 153M 6.6G 06:19:06 193 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 153M 6.6G 06:19:07 255 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 153M 6.6G
Table 25.4.1 briefly describes the columns in the output.
|read||total ARC accesses/second|
|miss%||ARC miss percentage|
|dmis||demand data misses/second|
|dm%||demand data miss percentage|
|pmis||prefetch misses per second|
|pm%||prefetch miss percentage|
|mm%||metadata miss percentage|
|c||arc target size|
To receive a summary of statistics, use:
arcsummary.py System Memory: 2.36% 93.40 MiB Active, 8.95% 353.43 MiB Inact 8.38% 330.89 MiB Wired, 0.15% 5.90 MiB Cache 80.16% 3.09 GiB Free, 0.00% 0 Bytes Gap Real Installed: 4.00 GiB Real Available: 99.31% 3.97 GiB Real Managed: 97.10% 3.86 GiB Logical Total: 4.00 GiB Logical Used: 13.93% 570.77 MiB Logical Free: 86.07% 3.44 GiB Kernel Memory: 87.62 MiB Data: 69.91% 61.25 MiB Text: 30.09% 26.37 MiB Kernel Memory Map: 3.86 GiB Size: 5.11% 201.70 MiB Free: 94.89% 3.66 GiB ARC Summary: (HEALTHY) Storage pool Version: 5000 Filesystem Version: 5 Memory Throttle Count: 0 ARC Misc: Deleted: 8 Mutex Misses: 0 Evict Skips: 0 ARC Size: 5.83% 170.45 MiB Target Size: (Adaptive) 100.00% 2.86 GiB Min Size (Hard Limit): 12.50% 365.69 MiB Max Size (High Water): 8:1 2.86 GiB ARC Size Breakdown: Recently Used Cache Size: 50.00% 1.43 GiB Frequently Used Cache Size: 50.00% 1.43 GiB ARC Hash Breakdown: Elements Max: 5.90k Elements Current: 100.00% 5.90k Collisions: 72 Chain Max: 1 Chains: 23 ARC Total accesses: 954.06k Cache Hit Ratio: 99.18% 946.25k Cache Miss Ratio: 0.82% 7.81k Actual Hit Ratio: 98.84% 943.00k Data Demand Efficiency: 99.20% 458.77k CACHE HITS BY CACHE LIST: Anonymously Used: 0.34% 3.25k Most Recently Used: 3.73% 35.33k Most Frequently Used: 95.92% 907.67k Most Recently Used Ghost: 0.00% 0 Most Frequently Used Ghost: 0.00% 0 CACHE HITS BY DATA TYPE: Demand Data: 48.10% 455.10k Prefetch Data: 0.00% 0 Demand Metadata: 51.56% 487.90k Prefetch Metadata: 0.34% 3.25k CACHE MISSES BY DATA TYPE: Demand Data: 46.93% 3.66k Prefetch Data: 0.00% 0 Demand Metadata: 49.76% 3.88k Prefetch Metadata: 3.30% 258 ZFS Tunable (sysctl): kern.maxusers 590 vm.kmem_size 4141375488 vm.kmem_size_scale 1 vm.kmem_size_min 0 vm.kmem_size_max 1319413950874 vfs.zfs.vol.unmap_enabled 1 vfs.zfs.vol.mode 2 vfs.zfs.sync_pass_rewrite 2 vfs.zfs.sync_pass_dont_compress 5 vfs.zfs.sync_pass_deferred_free 2 vfs.zfs.zio.exclude_metadata 0 vfs.zfs.zio.use_uma 1 vfs.zfs.cache_flush_disable 0 vfs.zfs.zil_replay_disable 0 vfs.zfs.version.zpl 5 vfs.zfs.version.spa 5000 vfs.zfs.version.acl 1 vfs.zfs.version.ioctl 5 vfs.zfs.debug 0 vfs.zfs.super_owner 0 vfs.zfs.min_auto_ashift 9 vfs.zfs.max_auto_ashift 13 vfs.zfs.vdev.write_gap_limit 4096 vfs.zfs.vdev.read_gap_limit 32768 vfs.zfs.vdev.aggregation_limit 131072 vfs.zfs.vdev.trim_max_active 64 vfs.zfs.vdev.trim_min_active 1 vfs.zfs.vdev.scrub_max_active 2 vfs.zfs.vdev.scrub_min_active 1 vfs.zfs.vdev.async_write_max_active 10 vfs.zfs.vdev.async_write_min_active 1 vfs.zfs.vdev.async_read_max_active 3 vfs.zfs.vdev.async_read_min_active 1 vfs.zfs.vdev.sync_write_max_active 10 vfs.zfs.vdev.sync_write_min_active 10 vfs.zfs.vdev.sync_read_max_active 10 vfs.zfs.vdev.sync_read_min_active 10 vfs.zfs.vdev.max_active 1000 vfs.zfs.vdev.async_write_active_max_dirty_percent60 vfs.zfs.vdev.async_write_active_min_dirty_percent30 vfs.zfs.vdev.mirror.non_rotating_seek_inc1 vfs.zfs.vdev.mirror.non_rotating_inc 0 vfs.zfs.vdev.mirror.rotating_seek_offset1048576 vfs.zfs.vdev.mirror.rotating_seek_inc 5 vfs.zfs.vdev.mirror.rotating_inc 0 vfs.zfs.vdev.trim_on_init 1 vfs.zfs.vdev.larger_ashift_minimal 0 vfs.zfs.vdev.bio_delete_disable 0 vfs.zfs.vdev.bio_flush_disable 0 vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.bshift 16 vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size 0 vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.max 16384 vfs.zfs.vdev.metaslabs_per_vdev 200 vfs.zfs.vdev.trim_max_pending 10000 vfs.zfs.txg.timeout 5 vfs.zfs.trim.enabled 1 vfs.zfs.trim.max_interval 1 vfs.zfs.trim.timeout 30 vfs.zfs.trim.txg_delay 32 vfs.zfs.space_map_blksz 4096 vfs.zfs.spa_slop_shift 5 vfs.zfs.spa_asize_inflation 24 vfs.zfs.deadman_enabled 1 vfs.zfs.deadman_checktime_ms 5000 vfs.zfs.deadman_synctime_ms 1000000 vfs.zfs.recover 0 vfs.zfs.spa_load_verify_data 1 vfs.zfs.spa_load_verify_metadata 1 vfs.zfs.spa_load_verify_maxinflight 10000 vfs.zfs.check_hostid 1 vfs.zfs.mg_fragmentation_threshold 85 vfs.zfs.mg_noalloc_threshold 0 vfs.zfs.condense_pct 200 vfs.zfs.metaslab.bias_enabled 1 vfs.zfs.metaslab.lba_weighting_enabled 1 vfs.zfs.metaslab.fragmentation_factor_enabled1 vfs.zfs.metaslab.preload_enabled 1 vfs.zfs.metaslab.preload_limit 3 vfs.zfs.metaslab.unload_delay 8 vfs.zfs.metaslab.load_pct 50 vfs.zfs.metaslab.min_alloc_size 33554432 vfs.zfs.metaslab.df_free_pct 4 vfs.zfs.metaslab.df_alloc_threshold 131072 vfs.zfs.metaslab.debug_unload 0 vfs.zfs.metaslab.debug_load 0 vfs.zfs.metaslab.fragmentation_threshold70 vfs.zfs.metaslab.gang_bang 16777217 vfs.zfs.free_bpobj_enabled 1 vfs.zfs.free_max_blocks 18446744073709551615 vfs.zfs.no_scrub_prefetch 0 vfs.zfs.no_scrub_io 0 vfs.zfs.resilver_min_time_ms 3000 vfs.zfs.free_min_time_ms 1000 vfs.zfs.scan_min_time_ms 1000 vfs.zfs.scan_idle 50 vfs.zfs.scrub_delay 4 vfs.zfs.resilver_delay 2 vfs.zfs.top_maxinflight 32 vfs.zfs.delay_scale 500000 vfs.zfs.delay_min_dirty_percent 60 vfs.zfs.dirty_data_sync 67108864 vfs.zfs.dirty_data_max_percent 10 vfs.zfs.dirty_data_max_max 4294967296 vfs.zfs.dirty_data_max 426512793 vfs.zfs.max_recordsize 1048576 vfs.zfs.zfetch.array_rd_sz 1048576 vfs.zfs.zfetch.max_distance 8388608 vfs.zfs.zfetch.min_sec_reap 2 vfs.zfs.zfetch.max_streams 8 vfs.zfs.prefetch_disable 1 vfs.zfs.mdcomp_disable 0 vfs.zfs.nopwrite_enabled 1 vfs.zfs.dedup.prefetch 1 vfs.zfs.l2c_only_size 0 vfs.zfs.mfu_ghost_data_lsize 0 vfs.zfs.mfu_ghost_metadata_lsize 0 vfs.zfs.mfu_ghost_size 0 vfs.zfs.mfu_data_lsize 26300416 vfs.zfs.mfu_metadata_lsize 1780736 vfs.zfs.mfu_size 29428736 vfs.zfs.mru_ghost_data_lsize 0 vfs.zfs.mru_ghost_metadata_lsize 0 vfs.zfs.mru_ghost_size 0 vfs.zfs.mru_data_lsize 122090496 vfs.zfs.mru_metadata_lsize 2235904 vfs.zfs.mru_size 139389440 vfs.zfs.anon_data_lsize 0 vfs.zfs.anon_metadata_lsize 0 vfs.zfs.anon_size 163840 vfs.zfs.l2arc_norw 1 vfs.zfs.l2arc_feed_again 1 vfs.zfs.l2arc_noprefetch 1 vfs.zfs.l2arc_feed_min_ms 200 vfs.zfs.l2arc_feed_secs 1 vfs.zfs.l2arc_headroom 2 vfs.zfs.l2arc_write_boost 8388608 vfs.zfs.l2arc_write_max 8388608 vfs.zfs.arc_meta_limit 766908416 vfs.zfs.arc_free_target 7062 vfs.zfs.arc_shrink_shift 7 vfs.zfs.arc_average_blocksize 8192 vfs.zfs.arc_min 383454208 vfs.zfs.arc_max 3067633664
When reading the tunable values, 0 means no, 1 typically means yes, and any other number represents a value. To receive a brief description of a “sysctl” value, use sysctl -d. For example:
sysctl -d vfs.zfs.zio.use_uma vfs.zfs.zio.use_uma: Use uma(9) for ZIO allocations
The ZFS tunables require a fair understanding of how ZFS works, meaning that you will be reading man pages and searching for the meaning of acronyms you are unfamiliar with. Do not change a tunable’s value without researching it first. If the tunable takes a numeric value (rather than 0 for no or 1 for yes), do not make one up. Instead, research examples of beneficial values that match your workload.
If you decide to change any of the ZFS tunables, continue to monitor the system to determine the effect of the change. It is recommended that you test your changes first at the command line using sysctl. For example, to disable pre-fetch (i.e. change disable to 1 or yes):
sysctl vfs.zfs.prefetch_disable=1 vfs.zfs.prefetch_disable: 0 -> 1
The output will indicate the old value followed by the new value. If the change is not beneficial, change it back to the original value. If the change turns out to be beneficial, you can make it permanent by creating a sysctl using the instructions in Tunables.
FreeNAS® includes the tw_cli command line utility for providing controller, logical unit, and drive management for AMCC/3ware ATA RAID Controllers. The supported models are listed in the man pages for the twe(4) and twa(4) drivers.
Before using this command, read its man page as it describes the terminology and provides some usage examples.
If you type tw_cli in Shell, the prompt will change, indicating that you have entered interactive mode where you can run all sorts of maintenance commands on the controller and its arrays.
Alternately, you can specify one command to run. For example, to view the disks in the array:
tw_cli /c0 show Unit UnitType Status %RCmpl %V/I/M Stripe Size(GB) Cache AVrfy ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ u0 RAID-6 OK - - 256K 5587.88 RiW ON u1 SPARE OK - - - 931.505 - OFF u2 RAID-10 OK - - 256K 1862.62 RiW ON VPort Status Unit Size Type Phy Encl-Slot Model ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ p8 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt0 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p9 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt1 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p10 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt2 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p11 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt3 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p12 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt4 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p13 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt5 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p14 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt6 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p15 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt7 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p16 OK u1 931.51 GB SAS - /c0/e0/slt8 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p17 OK u2 931.51 GB SATA - /c0/e0/slt9 ST31000340NS p18 OK u2 931.51 GB SATA - /c0/e0/slt10 ST31000340NS p19 OK u2 931.51 GB SATA - /c0/e0/slt11 ST31000340NS p20 OK u2 931.51 GB SATA - /c0/e0/slt15 ST31000340NS Name OnlineState BBUReady Status Volt Temp Hours LastCapTest --------------------------------------------------------------------------- bbu On Yes OK OK OK 212 03-Jan-2012
Or, to review the event log:
tw_cli /c0 show events Ctl Date Severity AEN Message ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ c0 [Thu Feb 23 2012 14:01:15] INFO Battery charging started c0 [Thu Feb 23 2012 14:03:02] INFO Battery charging completed c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 00:02:18] INFO Verify started: unit=0 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 00:02:18] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 00:02:18] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 03:49:35] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 03:51:39] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 21:55:59] INFO Verify completed: unit=0 c0 [Thu Mar 01 2012 13:51:09] INFO Battery health check started c0 [Thu Mar 01 2012 13:51:09] INFO Battery health check completed c0 [Thu Mar 01 2012 13:51:09] INFO Battery charging started c0 [Thu Mar 01 2012 13:53:03] INFO Battery charging completed c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 00:01:24] INFO Verify started: unit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 00:01:24] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 00:01:24] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 04:04:27] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 04:06:25] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 16:22:05] INFO Verify completed: unit=0 c0 [Thu Mar 08 2012 13:41:39] INFO Battery charging started c0 [Thu Mar 08 2012 13:43:42] INFO Battery charging completed c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 00:01:30] INFO Verify started: unit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 00:01:30] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 00:01:30] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 05:06:38] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 05:08:57] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 15:58:15] INFO Verify completed: unit=0
If you add some disks to the array and they are not showing up in the GUI, try running this command:
tw_cli /c0 rescan
Use the drives to create units and export them to the operating system. When finished, run camcontrol rescan all and they should now be available in the FreeNAS® GUI.
This forum post contains a handy wrapper script that will notify you of errors.
MegaCli is the command line interface for the Avago :MegaRAID SAS family of RAID controllers. FreeNAS® also includes the mfiutil(8) utility which can be used to configure and manage connected storage devices.
The MegaCli command is quite complex with several dozen options. The commands demonstrated in the Emergency Cheat Sheet can get you started.
The FreeNAS® GUI provides an option to save debugging information to a
text file using
System → Advanced → Save Debug.
This debugging information is created by the freenas-debug
command line utility and a copy of the information is saved to
This command can be run manually from Shell to gather specific debugging information. To see the available options, type:
freenas-debug Usage: /usr/local/bin/freenas-debug <options> Where options are: -e Email debug log to this comma-delimited list of email addresses -A Dump all debug information -a Dump Active Directory Configuration -c Dump (AD|LDAP) Cache -C Dump CIFS Configuration -D Dump Domain Controller Configuration -d Dump DTrace Scripts -g Dump GEOM Configuration -G Dump Grub Configuration -h Dump Hardware Configuration -I Dump IPMI Configuration -i Dump iSCSI Configuration -j Dump Jail Information -l Dump LDAP Configuration -T Loader Configuration Information -n Dump Network Configuration -N Dump NFS Configuration -S Dump SMART Information -s Dump SSL Configuration -y Dump Sysctl Configuration -t Dump System Information -v Dump Boot System File Verification Status and Inconsistencies (if any) -z Dump ZFS Configuration
For example, when troubleshooting an Active Directory configuration, use:
To collect the output of every module, use
tmux is a terminal multiplexer which enables a number of :terminals to be created, accessed, and controlled from a single :screen. tmux is an alternative to GNU screen. Similar to screen, tmux can be detached from a screen and continue running in the background, then later reattached. Unlike Shell, tmux allows you to have access to a command prompt while still providing access to the graphical administration screens.
To start a session, simply type tmux. As seen in Figure 25.8.1, a new session with a single window opens with a status line at the bottom of the screen. This line shows information on the current session and is used to enter interactive commands.
To create a second window, press
". To close
a window, type exit within the window.
tmux(1) lists all of the key bindings and commands for interacting with tmux windows and sessions.
If you close Shell while tmux is running, it will detach its session. The next time you open Shell, run tmux attach to return to the previous session. To leave the tmux session entirely, type exit. If you have multiple windows running, you will need to exit out of each first.
These resources provide more information about using tmux:
Dmidecode reports hardware information as reported by the system BIOS. Dmidecode does not scan the hardware, it only reports what the BIOS told it to. A sample output can be seen here.
To view the BIOS report, type the command with no arguments:
dmidecode | more
dmidecode(8) describes the supported strings and types.