Once you have a volume, create at least one share so that the storage is accessible by the other computers in your network. The type of share you create depends upon the operating system(s) running in your network, your security requirements, and expectations for network transfer speeds.
Beginning with version 9.3, FreeNAS® provides an Initial Configuration Wizard for creating shares. The Wizard will automatically create the correct type of dataset and permissions for the type of share, set the default permissions for the share type, and start the service needed by the share. It is recommended to use the Wizard to create shares, fine-tune the share settings using the instructions in the rest of this chapter if needed, then to fine-tune the default permissions from the client operating system to meet the requirements of the network.
shares are created to provide and control access to an area of storage. Before creating your shares, it is recommended to make a list of the users that will need access to storage data, which operating systems these users are using, whether or not all users should have the same permissions to the stored data, and whether or not these users should authenticate before accessing the data. This information can help you determine which type of share(s) you need to create, whether or not you need to create multiple datasets in order to divide up the storage into areas with differing access and permission requirements, and how complex it will be to setup your permission requirements. It should be noted that a share is used to provide access to data. If you delete a share, it removes access to data but does not delete the data itself.
The following types of shares and services are available:
- Apple (AFP) Shares: the Apple File Protocol (AFP) type of share is a good choice if all of your computers run Mac OS X.
- Unix (NFS) Shares: the Network File System (NFS) type of share is accessible by Mac OS X, Linux, BSD, and the professional and enterprise versions (not the home editions) of Windows. It is a good choice if there are many different operating systems in your network. Depending upon the operating system, it may require the installation or configuration of client software on the desktop.
- WebDAV Shares: this type of share is accessible using an authenticated web browser (read-only) or WebDAV client running on any operating system.
- Windows (CIFS) Shares: the Common Internet File System (CIFS) type of share is accessible by Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and BSD computers, but it is slower than an NFS share due to the single-threaded design of Samba. It provides more configuration options than NFS and is a good choice on a network containing any Windows systems. However, it is a poor choice if the CPU on the FreeNAS® system is limited; if your CPU is maxed out, you need to upgrade the CPU or consider another type of share.
- Block (iSCSI) shares: this type of share appears as an unformatted disk to clients running iSCSI initiator software or a virtualization solution such as VMware.
If you are looking for a solution that allows fast access from any operating system, consider configuring the FTP service instead of a share and use a cross-platform FTP and file manager client application such as Filezilla. Secure FTP can be configured if the data needs to be encrypted.
If data security is a concern and your network’s users are familiar with SSH command line utilities or WinSCP, consider configuring the SSH service instead of a share. It will be slower than unencrypted FTP due to the overhead of encryption, but the data passing through the network will be encrypted.
while the GUI will let you do it, it is a bad idea to share the same volume or dataset using multiple types of access methods. Different types of shares and services use different file locking methods. For example, if the same volume is configured to use both NFS and FTP, NFS will lock a file for editing by an NFS user, but a FTP user can simultaneously edit or delete that file. This will result in lost edits and confused users. Another example: if a volume is configured for both AFP and CIFS, Windows users may be confused by the extra filenames used by Mac files and delete the ones they don’t understand; this will corrupt the files on the AFP share. Pick the one type of share or service that makes the most sense for the types of clients that will access that volume, and configure that volume for that one type of share or service. If you need to support multiple types of shares, divide the volume into datasets and use one dataset per share.
This section will demonstrate how to fine-tune the configuration of AFP, NFS, CIFS, WebDAV, and iSCSI shares. FTP and SSH configurations are described in Services Configuration.
10.1. Apple (AFP) Shares¶
FreeNAS® uses the Netatalk AFP server to share data with Apple systems. This section describes the configuration screen for fine-tuning AFP shares created using the Initial Configuration Wizard. It then provides configuration examples for using the Wizard to create a guest share, configuring Time Machine to backup to a dataset on the FreeNAS® system, and for connecting to the share from a Mac OS X client.
To view the AFP share created by the Wizard, click Sharing ‣ Apple (AFP) and highlight the name of the share. Click its “Edit” button to see the configuration options shown in Figure 10.1a. The values showing for these options will vary, depending upon the information given when the share was created.
Figure 10.1a: Creating an AFP Share
while Table 10.1a summarizes the available options for fine-tuning an AFP share, you typically should not change the default settings of an AFP share as doing so may cause the share to not work as expected. Most settings are only available when you click “Advanced Mode”. Do not change an advanced option unless you fully understand the function of that option. Refer to Setting up Netatalk for a more detailed explanation of the available options.
Table 10.1a: AFP Share Configuration Options
|Path||browse button||browse to the volume/dataset to share; do not nest additional volumes, datasets, or symbolic links beneath this path because Netatalk lacks complete support|
|Name||string||volume name that will appear in the Mac computer’s “connect to server” dialogue; limited to 27 characters and can not contain a period|
|Share Comment||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; optional|
|Allow List||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; comma delimited list of allowed users and/or groups where groupname begins with a @; note that adding an entry will deny any user/group that is not specified|
|Deny List||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; comma delimited list of denied users and/or groups where groupname begins with a @; note that adding an entry will allow all users/groups that are not specified|
|Read-only Access||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; comma delimited list of users and/or groups who only have read access where groupname begins with a @|
|Read-write Access||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; comma delimited list of users and/or groups who have read and write access where groupname begins with a @|
|Time Machine||checkbox||when checked, FreeNAS will advertise itself as a Time Machine disk so it can be found by Macs; due to a limitation in how Mac deals with low-diskspace issues when multiple Mac’s share the same volume, checking “Time Machine” on multiple shares may result in intermittent failed backups|
|Zero Device Numbers||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; enable when the device number is not constant across a reboot|
|No Stat||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; if checked, AFP won’t stat the volume path when enumerating the volumes list; useful for automounting or volumes created by a preexec script|
|AFP3 UNIX Privs||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; enables Unix privileges supported by OSX 10.5 and higher; do not enable if the network contains Mac OS X 10.4 clients or lower as they do not support these|
|Default file permission||checkboxes||only available in “Advanced Mode”; only works with Unix ACLs; new files created on the share are set with the selected permissions|
|Default directory permission||checkboxes||only available in “Advanced Mode”; only works with Unix ACLs; new directories created on the share are set with the selected permissions|
|Default umask||integer||only available in “Advanced Mode”; umask for newly created files, default is 000 (anyone can read, write, and execute)|
|Hosts Allow||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; comma, space, or tab delimited list of allowed hostnames or IP addresses|
|Hosts Deny||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; comma, space, or tab delimited list of denied hostnames or IP addresses|
10.1.1. Creating AFP Guest Shares¶
AFP supports guest logins, meaning that all of your Mac OS X users can access the AFP share without requiring their user accounts to first be created on or imported into the FreeNAS® system.
if you create a guest share as well a share that requires authentication, AFP will only map users who login as guest to the guest share. This means that if a user logs in to the share that requires authentication, the permissions on the guest share may prevent that user from writing to the guest share. The only way to allow both guest and authenticated users to write to a guest share is to set the permissions on the guest share to 777 or to add the authenticated users to a guest group and set the permissions to 77x.
Before creating a guest share, go to Services ‣ AFP and make sure that the “Guest Access” box is checked.
Then, to create the AFP guest share, click “Wizard”, then click the “Next” button twice to display the screen shown in Figure 10.1b. Complete the following fields in this screen:
- Share name: input a name for the share that is useful to you but which is under 27 characters and does not contain a period. In this example, the share is named afp_guest.
- Click the button for “Mac OS X (AFP)”.
- Click the “Ownership” button. Click the drop-down “User” menu and select “nobody”. Click the “Return” button to return to the previous screen.
- Click the “Add” button. If you forget to do this, the share will not be created. Clicking the “Add” button will add an entry to the “Name” frame with the name that you typed into “Share name”.
Figure 10.1b: Creating a Guest AFP Share
Click the “Next” button twice, then the “Confirm” button to create the share. The Wizard will automatically create a dataset for the share that contains the correct default permissions and start the AFP service for you, so that the share is immediately available. The new share will also be added as an entry to Sharing ‣ Apple (AFP).
Mac OS X users can connect to the guest AFP share by clicking Go ‣ Connect to Server. In the example shown in Figure 10.1c, the user has input afp:// followed by the IP address of the FreeNAS® system.
Click the “Connect” button. Once connected, Finder will automatically open. The name of the AFP share will be displayed in the SHARED section in the left frame and the contents of any data that has been saved in the share will be displayed in the right frame.
Figure 10.1c: Connect to Server Dialogue
To disconnect from the volume, click the “eject” button in the “Shared” sidebar.
10.1.2. Creating Authenticated and Time Machine Shares¶
Mac OS X includes the Time Machine application which can be used to schedule automatic backups. In this configuration example, a Time Machine user will be configured to backup to an AFP share on a FreeNAS® system. It is recommended to create a separate Time Machine share for each user that will be using Time Machine to backup their Mac OS X system to FreeNAS®. The process for creating an authenticated share for a user is the same as creating a Time Machine share for that user.
To use the Wizard to create an authenticated or Time Machine share, enter the following information, as seen in the example in Figure 10.1d.
- Share name: input a name for the share that is useful to you but which is under 27 characters and does not contain a period. In this example, the share is named backup_user1.
- Click the button for “Mac OS X (AFP)” and check the box for “Time Machine”. If the user will not be using Time Machine, leave the box unchecked.
- Click the “Ownership” button. If the user already exists on the FreeNAS® system, click the drop-down “User” menu to select their user account. If the user does not yet exist on the FreeNAS® system, type their name into the “User” field and check the “Create User” checkbox. If you want the user to be a member of a group that already exists on the FreeNAS® system, click the drop-down “Group” menu to select the group name. If you wish to create a new group to be used by Time Machine users, input the name into the “Group” field and check the “Create Group” checkbox. Otherwise, input the same name as the user. In the example shown in Figure 10.1e, a new user named user1 will be created, as well as a new group named tm_backups. Since a new user is being created, this screen prompts for the password for the user to use when accessing the share. It also provides an opportunity to change the default permissions on the share. When finished, click “Return” to return to the screen shown in Figure 10.1d.
- Click the “Add” button. If you forget to do this, the share will not be created. Clicking the “Add” button will add an entry to the “Name” frame with the name that you typed into “Share name”.
If you wish to configure multiple authenticated or Time Machine shares, repeat for each user, giving each user their own “Share name” and “Ownership”. When finished, click the “Next” button twice, then the “Confirm” button to create the share(s). The Wizard will automatically create a dataset for each share that contains the correct ownership and start the AFP service for you, so that the share(s) are immediately available. The new share(s) will also be added as entries to Sharing ‣ Apple (AFP).
Figure 10.1d: Creating a Time Machine Share
Figure 10.1e: Creating an Authenticated User
At this point, it may be desirable to configure a quota for each Time Machine share, to restrict backups from using all of the available space on the FreeNAS® system. The first time Time Machine makes a backup, it will create a full backup after waiting two minutes. It will then create a one hour incremental backup for the next 24 hours, and then one backup each day, each week and each month. Since the oldest backups are deleted when a Time Machine share becomes full, make sure that the quota size you set is sufficient to hold the desired number of backups. Note that a default installation of Mac OS X is ~21 GB in size.
To configure a quota, go to Storage ‣ Volumes and highlight the entry for the share. In the example shown in Figure 10.1f, the Time Machine share name is backup_user1. Click the “Edit Options” button for the share, then “Advanced Mode”. Input a value in the “Quota for this dataset” field then click “Edit Dataset” to save the change. In this example, the Time Machine share is restricted to 200GB.
Figure 10.1f: Setting a Quota
To configure Time Machine on the Mac OS X client, go to System Preferences ‣ Time Machine which will open the screen shown in Figure 10.1g. Click “ON” and a pop-up menu should show the FreeNAS® system as a backup option. In our example, it is listed as backup_user1 on “freenas”. Highlight the entry representing the FreeNAS® system and click the “Use Backup Disk” button. A connection bar will open and will prompt for the user account’s password–in this example, the password that was set for the user1 account.
Figure 10.1g: Configuring Time Machine on Mac OS X Lion
If you receive a “Time Machine could not complete the backup. The backup disk image could not be created (error 45)” error when backing up to the FreeNAS® system, you will need to create a sparsebundle image using these instructions.
If you receive the message “Time Machine completed a verification of your backups. To improve reliability, Time Machine must create a new backup for you.” and you do not want to perform another complete backup or lose past backups, follow the instructions in this post.
10.2. Unix (NFS) Shares¶
FreeNAS® supports sharing over the Network File System (NFS). Clients use the mount command to mount the share. Once mounted, the NFS share appears as just another directory on the client system. Some Linux distros require the installation of additional software in order to mount an NFS share. On Windows systems, enable Services for NFS in the Ultimate or Enterprise editions or install an NFS client application.
for performance reasons, iSCSI is preferred to NFS shares when FreeNAS is installed on ESXi. If you are considering creating NFS shares on ESXi, read through the performance analysis at Running ZFS over NFS as a VMware Store.
To create an NFS share using the Wizard, click the “Next” button twice to display the screen shown in Figure 10.2a. Input a “Share name” that makes sense to you, but which does not contain a space. Click the button for “Generic Unix (NFS)”, then click “Add” so that the share’s name appears in the “Name” frame. When finished, click the “Next” button twice, then the “Confirm” button to create the share. Creating an NFS share using the wizard will automatically create a new dataset for the share, start the services required by NFS, and add an entry for the share in Sharing ‣ Unix (NFS) Shares. Depending upon your requirements, you may wish to fine-tune the NFS share to control which IP addresses are allowed to access the NFS share and to restrict the permissions of the mounted share.
Figure 10.2a: NFS Share Wizard
To edit the NFS share, click Sharing ‣ Unix (NFS), highlight the entry for the share, and click its “Edit” button. In the example shown in Figure 10.2b, the configuration screen is open for the nfs_share1 share.
Figure 10.2b: NFS Share Settings
Table 10.2a summarizes the available configuration options in this screen. Some settings are only available by clicking the “Advanced Mode” button.
Table 10.2a: NFS Share Options
|Path||browse button||the path that clients will use when mounting the share; click “Add extra path” to select multiple paths|
|Comment||string||used to set the share name; if left empty, share name will be the list of selected “Path”s|
|Authorized networks||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; space delimited list of allowed network addresses in the form 220.127.116.11/24 where the number after the slash is a CIDR mask|
|Authorized IP addresses or hosts||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; space delimited list of allowed IP addresses or hostnames|
|All directories||checkbox||if checked, the client can mount any subdirectory within the “Path”|
|Read only||checkbox||prohibits writing to the share|
|Quiet||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; inhibits some syslog diagnostics which can be useful to avoid some annoying error messages; see exports(5) for examples|
|Maproot User||drop-down menu||only available in “Advanced Mode”; if a user is selected, the root user is limited to that user’s permissions|
|Maproot Group||drop-down menu||only available in “Advanced Mode”; if a group is selected, the root user will also be limited to that group’s permissions|
|Mapall User||drop-down menu||only available in “Advanced Mode”; the specified user’s permissions are used by all clients|
|Mapall Group||drop-down menu||only available in “Advanced Mode”; the specified group’s permission are used by all clients|
|Security||selection||only available in “Advanced Mode” and only appears if “Enable NFSv4” is checked in Services ‣ NFS; choices are sys or the following Kerberos options: krb5 (authentication only), krb5i (authentication and integrity), or krb5p (authentication and privacy); if multiple security mechanisms are added to the “Selected” column using the arrows, use the “Up” or “Down” buttons to list in order of preference|
When creating the NFS share, keep the following points in mind:
- The “Maproot” and “Mapall” options are exclusive, meaning you can only use one or the other–the GUI will not let you use both. The “Mapall” options supersede the “Maproot” options. If you only wish to restrict the root user’s permissions, set the “Maproot” option. If you wish to restrict the permissions of all users, set the “Mapall” options.
- Each volume or dataset is considered to be its own filesystem and NFS is not able to cross filesystem boundaries.
- The network or host must be unique per share and per filesystem or directory.
- The “All directories” option can only be used once per share per filesystem.
To better understand these restrictions, consider the following scenario where there are:
- 2 networks named 10.0.0.0/8 and 18.104.22.168/8
- a ZFS volume named
volume1with 2 datasets named
dataset1has a directory named
Because of restriction #3, you will receive an error if you try to create one NFS share as follows:
- “Authorized networks” set to 10.0.0.0/8 22.214.171.124/8
- “Path” set to
Instead, you should select a “Path” of
/mnt/volume1/dataset1 and check the “All directories” box.
However, you could restrict that directory to one of the networks by creating two shares as follows.
First NFS share:
- “Authorized networks” set to 10.0.0.0/8
- “Path” set to
Second NFS share:
- “Authorized networks” set to 126.96.36.199/8
- “Path” set to
Note that this requires the creation of two shares as it can not be accomplished in one share.
10.2.1. Example Configuration¶
By default the “Mapall” options show as N/A. This means that when a user connects to the NFS share, they connect with the permissions associated with their user account. This is a security risk if a user is able to connect as root as they will have complete access to the share.
A better scenario is to do the following:
- Specify the built-in nobody account to be used for NFS access.
- In the “Change Permissions” screen of the volume/dataset that is being shared, change the owner and group to nobody and set the permissions according to your specifications.
- Select nobody in the “Mapall User” and “Mapall Group” drop-down menus for the share in Sharing ‣ Unix (NFS) Shares.
With this configuration, it does not matter which user account connects to the NFS share, as it will be mapped to the nobody user account and will only have the permissions that you specified on the volume/dataset. For example, even if the root user is able to connect, it will not gain root access to the share.
10.2.2. Connecting to the Share¶
In the following examples, an NFS share on a FreeNAS® system with the IP address of 192.168.2.2 has been configured as follows:
- A ZFS volume named
/mnt/datahas its permissions set to the nobody user account and the nobody group.
- A NFS share has been created with the following attributes:
- “Authorized Network”: 192.168.2.0/24
- “MapAll User” and “MapAll Group” are both set to nobody
- the “All Directories” checkbox has been checked
10.2.2.1. From BSD or Linux¶
To make this share accessible on a BSD or a Linux system, run the following command as the superuser (or with sudo) from the client system. Repeat on each client that needs access to the NFS share:
mount -t nfs 192.168.2.2:/mnt/data /mnt
The mount command uses the following options:
- -t nfs: specifies the type of share.
- 192.168.2.2: replace with the IP address of the FreeNAS® system
- /mnt/data: replace with the name of the NFS share
- /mnt: a mount point on the client system. This must be an existing, empty directory. The data in the NFS share will be made available to the client in this directory.
The mount command should return to the command prompt without any error messages, indicating that the share was successfully mounted.
if this command fails on a Linux system, make sure that the nfs-utils package is installed.
Once mounted, this configuration allows users on the client system to copy files to and from
/mnt (the mount point) and all files will be owned by
nobody:nobody. Any changes to
/mnt will be saved to the FreeNAS® system’s
Should you wish to make any changes to the NFS share’s settings or wish to make the share inaccessible, first unmount the share on the client as the superuser:
10.2.2.2. From Microsoft¶
Windows systems can connect to NFS shares using Services for NFS (refer to the documentation for your version of Windows for instructions on how to find, activate, and use this service) or a third-party NFS client.
Nekodrive provides an open source graphical NFS client. To use this client, you will need to install the following on the Windows system:
- 7zip to extract the Nekodrive download files
- NFSClient and NFSLibrary from the Nekodrive download page; once downloaded, extract these files using 7zip
- .NET Framework 4.0
Once everything is installed, run the NFSClient executable to start the GUI client. In the example shown in Figure 10.2c, the user has connected to the
/mnt/data share of the FreeNAS® system at
Nekodrive does not support Explorer drive mapping via NFS. If you need this functionality, try this utility instead.
Figure 10.2c: Using the Nekodrive NFSClient from Windows 7 Home Edition
10.2.2.3. From Mac OS X¶
To mount the NFS volume from a Mac OS X client, click on Go ‣ Connect to Server. In the “Server Address” field, input nfs:// followed by the IP address of the FreeNAS® system and the name of the volume/dataset being shared by NFS. The example shown in Figure 10.2d continues with our example of 192.168.2.2:/mnt/data.
Once connected, Finder will automatically open. The IP address of the FreeNAS® system will be displayed in the SHARED section in the left frame and the
contents of the share will be displayed in the right frame. In the example shown in Figure 10.2e,
/mnt/data has one folder named
user can now copy files to and from the share.
Figure 10.2d: Mounting the NFS Share from Mac OS X
Figure 10.2e: Viewing the NFS Share in Finder
10.2.3. Troubleshooting NFS¶
Some NFS clients do not support the NLM (Network Lock Manager) protocol used by NFS. You will know that this is the case if the client receives an error that all or part of the file may be locked when a file transfer is attempted. To resolve this error, add the option -o nolock when running the mount command on the client in order to allow write access to the NFS share.
If you receive an error about a “time out giving up” when trying to mount the share from a Linux system, make sure that the portmapper service is running on the Linux client and start it if it is not. If portmapper is running and you still receive timeouts, force it to use TCP by including -o tcp in your mount command.
If you receive an error “RPC: Program not registered”, upgrade to the latest version of FreeNAS® and restart the NFS service after the upgrade in order to clear the NFS cache.
If your clients are receiving “reverse DNS” errors, add an entry for the IP address of the FreeNAS® system in the “Host name database” field of Network ‣ Global Configuration.
If the client receives timeout errors when trying to mount the share, add the IP address and hostname of the client to the “Host name data base” field of Network ‣ Global Configuration.
Some older versions of NFS clients default to UDP instead of TCP and do not auto-negotiate for TCP. By default, FreeNAS® uses TCP. To support UDP connections, go to Services ‣ NFS and check the box “Serve UDP NFS clients”.
10.3. WebDAV Shares¶
Beginning with FreeNAS® 9.3, WebDAV shares can be created so that authenticated users can browse the contents of the specified volume, dataset, or directory from a web browser.
Configuring WebDAV shares is a two step process. First, create the WebDAV share(s) to specify which data can be accessed. Then, configure the WebDAV service by specifying the port, authentication type, and authentication password. Once the configuration is complete, the share can be accessed using a URL in the format:
- protocol: is either http or https, depending upon the “Protocol” configured in Services ‣ WebDAV.
- IP address: is the IP address or hostname of the FreeNAS® system. Take care when configuring a public IP address to ensure that the network’s firewall only allows access to authorized systems.
- port_number: is configured in Services ‣ WebDAV. If the FreeNAS® system is to be accessed using a public IP address, consider changing the default port number and ensure that the network’s firewall only allows access to authorized systems.
- share_name: is configured in Sharing ‣ WebDAV Shares.
Inputting the URL into a web browser will bring up an authentication pop-up message. Input a username of webdav and the password configured in Services ‣ WebDAV.
at this time, only the webdav user is supported. For this reason, it is important to set a good password for this account and to only give the password to users which should have access to the WebDAV share.
To create a WebDAV share, click Sharing ‣ WebDAV Shares ‣ Add WebDAV Share which will open the screen shown in Figure 10.3a.
Figure 10.3a: Adding a WebDAV Share
Table 10.3a summarizes the available options.
Table 10.3a: WebDAV Share Options
|Share Path Name||string||input a name for the share|
|Path||browse button||browse to the volume/dataset to share|
|Read Only||checkbox||if checked, users cannot write to the share|
|Change User & Group Ownership||checkbox||if checked, automatically sets the share’s contents to the webdav user and group|
Once you click “OK”, a pop-up will ask if you would like to enable the service. Once the service starts, review the settings in Services ‣ WebDAV as they are used to determine which URL is used to access the WebDAV share and whether or not authentication is required to access the share. These settings are described in WebDAV.
10.4. Windows (CIFS) Shares¶
FreeNAS® uses Samba to share volumes using Microsoft’s CIFS protocol. CIFS is built into the Windows and Mac OS X operating systems and most Linux and BSD systems pre-install the Samba client in order to provide support for CIFS. If your distro did not, install the Samba client using your distro’s software repository.
The CIFS protocol supports many different types of configuration scenarios, ranging from the very simple to quite complex. The complexity of your scenario depends upon the types and versions of the client operating systems that will connect to the share, whether or not the network has a Windows server, and whether or not Active Directory is running in the Windows network. Depending upon your authentication requirements, you may need to create or import users and groups.
This chapter starts by summarizing the available configuration options. It will then demonstrate some common configuration scenarios as well as offer some troubleshooting tips. It is recommended to first read through this entire chapter before creating any CIFS shares so that you have a good idea of the best configuration scenario to meet your network’s needs.
Figure 10.4a shows the configuration screen that appears when you click Sharing ‣ Windows (CIFS Shares) ‣ Add Windows (CIFS) Share.
Figure 10.4a: Adding a CIFS Share
Table 10.4a summarizes the options when creating a CIFS share. Some settings are only available when you click the “Advanced Mode” button. For simple sharing scenarios, you will not need any “Advanced Mode” options. For more complex sharing scenarios, only change an “Advanced Mode” option if you understand the function of that option. smb.conf(5) provides more details for each configurable option.
Table 10.4a: Options for a CIFS Share
|Path||browse button||select volume/dataset/directory to share|
|Use as home share||checkbox||check this box if the share is meant to hold user home directories; only one share can be the homes share|
|Name||string||mandatory; name of share|
|Comment||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; optional description|
|Apply Default Permissions||checkbox||sets the ACLs to allow read/write for owner/group and read-only for others; should only be unchecked when creating a share on a system that already has custom ACLs set|
|Export Read Only||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; prohibits write access to the share|
|Browsable to Network Clients||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; when checked, users see the contents of /homes (including other users’ home directories) and when unchecked, users see only their own home directory|
|Export Recycle Bin||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; deleted files are instead moved to a hidden
|Show Hidden Files||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; if enabled, will display filenames that begin with a dot (Unix hidden files)|
|Allow Guest Access||checkbox||if checked, no password is required to connect to the share and all users share the permissions of the guest user defined in the CIFS service|
|Only Allow Guest Access||checkbox||only available in “Advanced Mode”; requires “Allow guest access” to also be checked; forces guest access for all connections|
|Hosts Allow||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; comma, space, or tab delimited list of allowed hostnames or IP addresses;|
|Hosts Deny||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; comma, space, or tab delimited list of denied hostnames or IP addresses; allowed hosts take precedence so can use ALL in this field and specify allowed hosts in “Hosts Allow”|
|VFS Objects||selection||only available in “Advanced Mode” and adds virtual file system modules to enhance functionality; Table 10.4b summarizes the available modules|
|Periodic Snapshot Task||drop-down menu||used to configure home directory shadow copies on a per-share basis; select the pre-configured periodic snapshot task to use for the share’s shadow copies|
|Auxiliary Parameters||string||only available in “Advanced Mode”; additional
Note the following regarding some of the “Advanced Mode” settings:
- Hostname lookups add some time to accessing the CIFS share. If you only use IP addresses, uncheck the “Hostnames lookups” box in Services ‣ CIFS.
- Be careful about unchecking the “Browsable to Network Clients” box. When this box is checked (the default), other users will see the names of every share that exists using Windows Explorer, but they will receive a permissions denied error message if they try to access someone else’s share. If this box is unchecked, even the owner of the share won’t see it or be able to create a drive mapping for the share in Windows Explorer. However, they can still access the share from the command line. Unchecking this option provides limited security and is not a substitute for proper permissions and password control.
- If you wish some files on a shared volume to be hidden and inaccessible to users, put a veto files= line in the “Auxiliary Parameters” field. The syntax for the “veto files” option and some examples can be found here.
To configure support for OS/2 clients, add this line to “Auxiliary Parameters”:
lanman auth = yes
To configure lanman authentication for pre-NT authentication, add these lines instead:
client lanman auth = yes client plaintext auth = yes
Table 10.4b provides an overview of the available VFS modules. Be sure to research each module before adding or deleting it from the “Selected” column of the “VFS Objects” field for the share. Some modules will need additional configuration after they are added. Refer to Stackable VFS modules and the vfs_* man pages for more details.
Table 10.4b: Available VFS Modules
|acl_tdb||stores NTFS ACLs in a tdb file in order to enable full mapping of Windows ACLs|
|acl_xattr||stores NTFS ACLs in Extended Attributes (EAs) in order to enable the full mapping of Windows ACLs|
|aio_fork||enables async I/O|
|aio_posix||enables asynchronous I/O on systems running POSIX kernels|
|aio_pthread||implements async I/O in Samba vfs using a pthread pool instead of the internal Posix AIO interface|
|audit||logs share access, connects/disconnects, directory opens/creates/removes, and file opens/closes/renames/unlinks/chmods to syslog|
|cacheprime||primes the kernel file data cache|
|cap||translates filenames to and from the CAP encoding format, commonly used in Japanese language environments|
|catia||creates filenames that use characters that are illegal in CIFS filenames|
|commit||tracks the amount of data written to a file and synchronizes it to disk when a specified amount accumulates|
|crossrename||allows server side rename operations even if source and target are on different physical devices|
|default_quota||stores the default quotas that are reported to a windows client in the quota record of a user|
|dfs_samba4||distributed file system for providing an alternative name space, load balancing, and automatic failover|
|dirsort||sorts directory entries alphabetically before sending them to the client|
|expand_msdfs||enables support for Microsoft Distributed File System (DFS)|
|extd_audit||sends “audit” logs to both syslog and the Samba log files|
|fake_acls||stores file ownership and ACLs as extended attributes|
|fake_perms||allows roaming profile files and directories to be set as read-only|
|full_audit||records selected client operations to the system log|
|linux_xfs_sgid||used to work around an old Linux XFS bug|
|media_harmony||allows Avid editorial workstations to share a network drive|
|netatalk||eases the co-existence of CIFS and AFP shares|
|notify_fam||implements file change notifications from IRIX and some BSD systems to Windows clients|
|posix_eadb||provides Extended Attributes (EAs) support so they can be used on filesystems which do not provide native support for EAs|
|preopen||useful for video streaming applications that want to read one file per frame|
|readahead||useful for Windows Vista clients reading data using Windows Explorer|
|readonly||marks a share as read-only for all clients connecting within the configured time period|
|recycle||moves deleted files to the recycle directory instead of deleting them|
|scannedonly||ensures that only files that have been scanned for viruses are visible and accessible|
|shadow_copy||allows Microsoft shadow copy clients to browse shadow copies on Windows shares|
|shadow_copy2||a more recent implementation of “shadow_copy” with some additonal features|
|shadow_copy_test||shadow copy testing|
|skel_opaque||implements dummy versions of all VFS modules (useful to VFS module developers)|
|skel_transparent||implements dummy passthrough functions of all VFS modules (useful to VFS module developers)|
|smb_traffic_analyzer||logs Samba read and write operations through a socket to a helper application|
|streams_depot||experimental module to store alternate data streams in a central directory|
|streams_xattr||enables storing of NTFS alternate data streams in the file system|
|syncops||ensures metadata operations are performed synchronously|
|time_audit||logs system calls that take longer than the number of defined milliseconds|
|xattr_tdb||stores Extended Attributes (EAs) in a tdb file so they can be used on filesystems which do not provide support for EAs|
10.4.1. Configuring Unauthenticated Access¶
CIFS supports guest logins, meaning that users can access the CIFS share without needing to provide a username or password. This type of share is convenient as it is easy to configure, easy to access, and does not require any users to be configured on the FreeNAS® system. This type of configuration is also the least secure as anyone on the network can access the contents of the share. Additionally, since all access is as the guest user, even if the user inputs a username or password, there is no way to differentiate which users accessed or modified the data on the share. This type of configuration is best suited for small networks where quick and easy access to the share is more important than the security of the data on the share.
To configure an unauthenticated CIFS share, click “Wizard”, then click the “Next” button twice to display the screen shown in Figure 10.4b. Complete the following fields in this screen:
- Share name: input a name for the share that is useful to you. In this example, the share is named cifs_insecure.
- Click the button for “Windows (CIFS)” and check the box for “Allow Guest”.
- Click the “Ownership” button. Click the drop-down “User” menu and select “nobody”. Click the “Return” button to return to the previous screen.
- Click the “Add” button. If you forget to do this, the share will not be created. Clicking the “Add” button will add an entry to the “Name” frame with the name that you typed into “Share name”.
Figure 10.4b: Creating an Unauthenticated CIFS Share
Click the “Next” button twice, then the “Confirm” button to create the share. The Wizard will automatically create a dataset for the share and start the CIFS service for you, so that the share is immediately available. The new share will also be added as an entry to Sharing ‣ Windows (CIFS).
Users can now access the share from any CIFS client and should not be prompted for their username or password. For example, to access the share from a Windows system, open Explorer and click on “Network”. For this configuration example, a system named FREENAS should appear with a share named “insecure_cifs”. The user should be able to copy data to and from the unauthenticated CIFS share.
10.4.2. Configuring Authenticated Access Without a Domain Controller¶
Most configuration scenarios require each user to have their own user account and to authenticate before accessing the share. This allows the administrator to control access to data, provide appropriate permissions to that data, and to determine who accesses and modifies stored data. A Windows domain controller is not needed for authenticated CIFS shares, which means that additional licensing costs are not required. However, since there is no domain controller to provide authentication for the network, each user account needs to be created on the FreeNAS® system. This type of configuration scenario is often used in home and small networks as it does not scale well if many users accounts are needed.
Before configuring this scenario, determine which users will need authenticated access. While not required for the configuration, it eases troubleshooting if the username and password that will be created on the FreeNAS® system matches that information on the client system. Next, determine if each user should have their own share to store their own data or if several users will be using the same share. The simpler configuration is to make one share per user as it does not require the creation of groups, adding the correct users to the groups, and ensuring that group permissions are set correctly.
To use the Wizard to create an authenticated CIFS share, enter the following information, as seen in the example in Figure 10.4c.
- Share name: input a name for the share that is useful to you. In this example, the share is named cifs_user1.
- Click the button for “Windows (CIFS)”.
- Click the “Ownership” button. To create the user account on the FreeNAS® system, type their name into the “User” field and check the “Create User” checkbox. This will prompt you to type in and confirm the user’s password. If the user will not be sharing this share with other users, type their name into the “Group” field and click the box “Create Group”. If, however, the share will be used by several users, instead type in a group name and check the “Create Group” box. In the example shown in Figure 10.4d, user1 has been used for both the user and group name, meaning that this share will only be used by user1. When finished, click “Return” to return to the screen shown in Figure 10.1d.
If you wish to configure multiple authenticated shares, repeat for each user, giving each user their own “Share name” and “Ownership”. When finished, click the “Next” button twice, then the “Confirm” button to create the share(s). The Wizard will automatically create a dataset for each share that contains the correct ownership and start the CIFS service for you, so that the share(s) are immediately available. The new share(s) will also be added as entries to Sharing ‣ Windows (CIFS).
Figure 10.4c: Creating an Authenticated CIFS Share
Figure 10.4d: Creating the User and Group
You should now be able to test an authenticated share from any CIFS client. For example, to test an authenticated share from a Windows system, open Explorer and click on “Network”. For this configuration example, a system named FREENAS should appear with a share named “cifs_user1”. If you click on “cifs_user1”, a Windows Security pop-up screen should prompt for that user’s username and password. Input the values that were configured for that share, in this case it is for the user user1. Once authenticated, that user can copy data to and from the CIFS share.
To prevent Windows Explorer from hanging when accessing the share, map the share as a network drive. To do this, right-click the share and select “Map network drive...”. Choose a drive letter from the drop-down menu and click the “Finish” button.
Note that Windows systems cache a user’s credentials which can cause issues when testing or accessing multiple authenticated shares as only one authentication is allowed at a time. If you are having problems authenticating to a share and are sure that you are inputting the correct username and password, type cmd in the “Search programs and files” box and use the following command to see if you are already authenticated to a share. In this example, the user has already authenticated to the cifs_user1 share:
net use New connections will be remembered. Status Local Remote Network ------------------------------------------------------------------------ OK \\FREENAS\cifs_user1 Microsoft Windows Network The command completed successfully.
To clear the cache:
net use * /DELETE You have these remote connections: \\FREENAS\cifs_user1 Continuing will cancel the connections. Do you want to continue this operation? <Y/N> [N]: y
You will get an additional warning if the share is currently open in Explorer:
There are open files and/or incomplete directory searches pending on the connection to \\FREENAS|cifs_user1. Is it OK to continue disconnecting and force them closed? <Y/N> [N]: y The command completed successfully.
The next time you access a share using Explorer, you should be prompted to authenticate.
10.4.3. Configuring Shadow Copies¶
Shadow Copies, also known as the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) or Previous Versions, is a Microsoft service for creating volume snapshots. Shadow copies allow you to easily restore previous versions of files from within Windows Explorer. Shadow Copy support is built into Vista and Windows 7. Windows XP or 2000 users need to install the Shadow Copy client.
When you create a periodic snapshot task on a ZFS volume that is configured as a CIFS share in FreeNAS®, it is automatically configured to support shadow copies.
Before using shadow copies with FreeNAS®, be aware of the following caveats:
- If the Windows system is not fully patched to the latest service pack, Shadow Copies may not work. If you are unable to see any previous versions of files to restore, use Windows Update to make sure that the system is fully up-to-date.
- Shadow copy support only works for ZFS pools or datasets. This means that the CIFS share must be configured on a volume or dataset, not on a directory.
- Datasets are filesystems and shadow copies cannot traverse filesystems. If you want to be able to see the shadow copies in your child datasets, create separate shares for them.
- Shadow copies will not work with a manual snapshot, you must create a periodic snapshot task for the pool or dataset being shared by CIFS or a recursive task for a parent dataset.
- The periodic snapshot task should be created and at least one snapshot should exist before creating the CIFS share. If you created the CIFS share first, restart the CIFS service in Services ‣ Control Services.
- Appropriate permissions must be configured on the volume/dataset being shared by CIFS.
- Users can not delete shadow copies on the Windows system due to the way Samba works. Instead, the administrator can remove snapshots from the FreeNAS® administrative GUI. The only way to disable shadow copies completely is to remove the periodic snapshot task and delete all snapshots associated with the CIFS share.
To configure shadow copy support, use the instructions in Configuring Authenticated Access Without a Domain Controller to create the desired number of shares. In this configuration example, a Windows 7 computer has two users: user1 and user2. For this example, two authenticated shares are created so that each user account has their own share. The first share is named user1 and the second share is named user2. Then:
- Use Storage ‣ Periodic Snapshot Tasks ‣ Add Periodic Snapshot, to create at least one periodic snapshot task. You can either create
a snapshot task for each user’s dataset, in this example the dataset names are
/mnt/volume1/user2, or you can create one periodic snapshot task for the entire volume, in this case
/mnt/volume1. Before continuing to the next step, confirm that at least one snapshot for each defined task is displayed in the Storage ‣ Snapshots tab. When creating the schedule for the periodic snapshot tasks, keep in mind how often your users need to access modified files and during which days and time of day they are likely to make changes.
- Go to Sharing ‣ Windows (CIFS) Shares. Highlight a share and click its “Edit” button then its “Advanced Mode” button. Click the “Periodic Snapshot Task” drop-down menu and select the periodic snapshot task to use for that share. Repeat for each share being configured as a shadow copy. For this example, the share named “/mnt/volume1/user1” is configured to use a periodic snapshot task that was configured to take snapshots of the “/mnt/volume1/user1” dataset and the share named “/mnt/volume1/user2” is configured to use a periodic snapshot task that was configured to take snapshots of the “/mnt/volume1/user2” dataset.
- Verify that the CIFS service is set to “ON” in Services ‣ Control Services.
Figure 10.4e provides an example of using shadow copies while logged in as user1 on the Windows system. In this example, the user right-clicked modified file and selected “Restore previous versions” from the menu. This particular file has three versions: the current version, plus two previous versions stored on the FreeNAS® system. The user can choose to open one of the previous versions, copy a previous version to the current folder, or restore one of the previous versions, which will overwrite the existing file on the Windows system.
Figure 10.4e: Viewing Previous Versions within Explorer
10.5. Block (iSCSI)¶
iSCSI is a protocol standard for the consolidation of storage data. iSCSI allows FreeNAS® to act like a storage area network (SAN) over an existing Ethernet network. Specifically, it exports disk devices over an Ethernet network that iSCSI clients (called initiators) can attach to and mount. Traditional SANs operate over fibre channel networks which require a fibre channel infrastructure such as fibre channel HBAs, fibre channel switches, and discrete cabling. iSCSI can be used over an existing Ethernet network, although dedicated networks can be built for iSCSI traffic in an effort to boost performance. iSCSI also provides an advantage in an environment that uses Windows shell programs; these programs tend to filter “Network Location” but iSCSI mounts are not filtered.
Before configuring the iSCSI service, you should be familiar with the following iSCSI terminology:
CHAP: an authentication method which uses a shared secret and three-way authentication to determine if a system is authorized to access the storage device and to periodically confirm that the session has not been hijacked by another system. In iSCSI, the initiator (client) performs the CHAP authentication.
Mutual CHAP: a superset of CHAP in that both ends of the communication authenticate to each other.
Initiator: a client which has authorized access to the storage data on the FreeNAS® system. The client requires initiator software in order to initiate the connection to the iSCSI share.
Target: a storage resource on the FreeNAS® system. Every target has a unique name known as an iSCSI Qualified Name (IQN).
Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS): protocol for the automated discovery of iSCSI devices on a TCP/IP network.
Extent: the storage unit to be shared. It can either be a file or a device.
Portal: indicates which IP(s) and port(s) to listen on for connection requests.
LUN: stands for Logical Unit Number and represents a logical SCSI device. An initiator negotiates with a target to establish connectivity to a LUN; the result is an iSCSI connection that emulates a connection to a SCSI hard disk. Initiators treat iSCSI LUNs the same way as they would a raw SCSI or IDE hard drive; rather than mounting remote directories, initiators format and directly manage filesystems on iSCSI LUNs. When configuring multiple iSCSI LUNs, create a new target for each LUN. Since iSCSI multiplexes a target with multiple LUNs over the same TCP connection, you will experience contention from TCP if there is more than one target per LUN.
Beginning with FreeNAS® 9.3, iSCSI is built into the kernel. This version of iSCSI supports Microsoft Offloaded Data Transfer (ODX), meaning that file copies happen locally, rather than over the network. It also supports the following VAAI (vStorage APIs for Array Integration) primitives, where VAAI is VMware’s API framework that enables certain storage tasks, such as large data moves, to be offloaded from the virtualization hardware to the storage array.
- unmap: tells ZFS that the space occupied by deleted files should be freed. Without unmap, ZFS is unaware of freed space made when the initiator deletes files. For this feature to work, the initiator must support the unmap command.
- atomic test and set: allows multiple initiators to synchronize LUN access in a fine-grained manner rather than locking the whole LUN, which would prevent other hosts from accessing the same LUN simultaneously.
- write same: when allocating virtual machines with thick provisioning, the necessary write of zeroes is done locally, rather than over the network, so virtual machine creation is much quicker.
- xcopy: similar to Microsoft ODX, copies happen locally rather than over the network.
- stun: if a volume runs out of space, this feature pauses any running virtual machines so that the space issue can be fixed, instead of reporting write errors.
- threshold warning: the system reports a warning when a configurable capacity is reached. In FreeNAS, this threshold can be configured at the pool level when using zvols (see Table 10.5a) or at the extent level (see Table 10.5f) for both file- and device-based extents. Typically, the warning is set at the pool level, unless file extents are used, in which case it must be set at the extent level.
- LUN reporting: the LUN reports that it is thin provisioned.
In order to configure iSCSI:
- Review the target global configuration parameters.
- Create at least one portal.
- Determine which hosts are allowed to connect using iSCSI and create an initiator.
- Decide if you will use authentication, and if so, whether it will be CHAP or mutual CHAP. If using authentication, create an authorized access.
- Create a target.
- Create either a device or a file extent to be used as storage.
- Associate a target with an extent.
- Start the iSCSI service in Services ‣ Control Services.
The rest of this section describes these steps in more detail.
10.5.1. Target Global Configuration¶
Sharing ‣ Block (iSCSI) ‣ Target Global Configuration, shown in Figures 10.5a, contains settings that apply to all iSCSI shares. Table 10.5a summarizes the settings that can be configured in the Target Global Configuration screen.
Figure 10.5a: iSCSI Target Global Configuration Variables
Table 10.5a: Target Global Configuration Settings
|Base Name||string||see the “Constructing iSCSI names using the iqn. format” section of RFC 3721 if you are unfamiliar with this format|
|ISNS Servers||string||space delimited list of hostnames or IP addresses of ISNS server(s) to register the system’s iSCSI targets and portals with|
|Pool Available Space Threshold||integer||input the percentage of free space that should remain in the pool; when this percentage is reached, the system will issue an alert, but only if zvols are used|
A portal specifies the IP address and port number to be used for iSCSI connections. Sharing ‣ Block (iSCSI) ‣ Portals ‣ Add Portal will bring up the screen shown in Figure 10.5b.
Table 10.5b summarizes the settings that can be configured when adding a portal. If you need to assign additional IP addresses to the portal, click the link “Add extra Portal IP”.
Figure 10.5b: Adding an iSCSI Portal
Table 10.5b: Portal Configuration Settings
|Comment||string||optional description; portals are automatically assigned a numeric group ID|
|Discovery Auth Method||drop-down menu||configures the authentication level required by the target for discovery of valid devices, where None will allow anonymous discovery while CHAP and Mutual CHAP require authentication|
|Discovery Auth Group||drop-down menu||select a user created in “Authorized Access” if the “Discovery Auth Method” is set to CHAP or Mutual CHAP|
|IP address||drop-down menu||select the IP address associated with an interface or the wildcard address of 0.0.0.0 (any interface)|
|Port||integer||TCP port used to access the iSCSI target; default is 3260|
FreeNAS® systems with multiple IP addresses or interfaces can use a portal to provide services on different interfaces or subnets. This can be used to configure multi-path I/O (MPIO). MPIO is more efficient than a link aggregation.
If the FreeNAS® system has multiple configured interfaces, portals can also be used to provide network access control. For example, consider a system with four interfaces configured with the following addresses:
You could create a portal containing the first two IP addresses (group ID 1) and a portal containing the remaining two IP addresses (group ID 2). You could then create a target named A with a Portal Group ID of 1 and a second target named B with a Portal Group ID of 2. In this scenario, istgt would listen on all four interfaces, but connections to target A would be limited to the first two networks and connections to target B would be limited to the last two networks.
Another scenario would be to create a portal which includes every IP address except for the one used by a management interface. This would prevent iSCSI connections to the management interface.
The next step is to configure authorized initiators, or the systems which are allowed to connect to the iSCSI targets on the FreeNAS® system. To configure which systems can connect, use Sharing ‣ Block (iSCSI) ‣ Initiators ‣ Add Initiator, shown in Figure 10.5c.
Figure 10.5c: Adding an iSCSI Initiator
Table 10.5c summarizes the settings that can be configured when adding an initiator.
Table 10.5c: Initiator Configuration Settings
|Initiators||string||use ALL keyword or a list of initiator hostnames separated by spaces|
|Authorized network||string||use ALL keyword or a network address with CIDR mask such as 192.168.2.0/24|
In the example shown in Figure 10.5d, two groups have been created. Group 1 allows connections from any initiator on any network; Group 2 allows connections from any initiator on the 10.10.1.0/24 network. Click an initiator’s entry to display its “Edit” and “Delete” buttons.
if you delete an initiator, a warning will indicate if any targets or target/extent mappings depend upon the initiator. If you confirm the delete, these will be deleted as well.
Figure 10.5d: Sample iSCSI Initiator Configuration
10.5.4. Authorized Accesses¶
If you will be using CHAP or mutual CHAP to provide authentication, you must create an authorized access in Sharing ‣ Block (iSCSI) ‣ Authorized Accesses ‣ Add Authorized Access. This screen is shown in Figure 10.5e.
this screen sets login authentication. This is different from discovery authentication which is set in Target Global Configuration.
Figure 10.5e: Adding an iSCSI Authorized Access
Table 10.5d summarizes the settings that can be configured when adding an authorized access:
Table 10.5d: Authorized Access Configuration Settings
|Group ID||integer||allows different groups to be configured with different authentication profiles; for instance, all users with a Group ID of 1 will inherit the authentication profile associated with Group 1|
|User||string||name of user account to create for CHAP authentication with the user on the remote system; many initiators default to using the initiator name as the user|
|Secret||string||password to be associated with “User”; the iSCSI standard requires that this be between 12 and 16 characters|
|Peer User||string||only input when configuring mutual CHAP; in most cases it will need to be the same value as “User”|
|Peer Secret||string||the mutual secret password which must be different than the “Secret”; required if the “Peer User” is set|
CHAP does not work with GlobalSAN initiators on Mac OS X.
As authorized accesses are added, they will be listed under View Authorized Accesses. In the example shown in Figure 10.5f, three users (test1, test2, and test3) and two groups ( 1 and 2) have been created, with group 1 consisting of one CHAP user and group 2 consisting of one mutual CHAP user and one CHAP user. Click an authorized access entry to display its “Edit” and “Delete” buttons.
Figure 10.5f: Viewing Authorized Accesses
Next, create a Target using Sharing ‣ Block (iSCSI) ‣ Targets ‣ Add Target, as shown in Figure 10.5g. A target combines a portal ID, allowed initiator ID, and an authentication method. Table 10.5e summarizes the settings that can be configured when creating a Target.
an iSCSI target creates a block device that may be accessible to multiple initiators. A clustered filesystem is required on the block device, such as VMFS used by VMware ESX/ESXi, in order for multiple initiators to mount the block device read/write. If a traditional filesystem such as EXT, XFS, FAT, NTFS, UFS, or ZFS is placed on the block device, care must be taken that only one initiator at a time has read/write access or the result will be filesystem corruption. If you need to support multiple clients to the same data on a non-clustered filesystem, use CIFS or NFS instead of iSCSI or create multiple iSCSI targets (one per client).
Figure 10.5g: Adding an iSCSI Target
Table 10.5e: Target Settings
|Target Name||string||required value; base name will be appended automatically if it does not start with iqn|
|Target Alias||string||optional user-friendly name|
|Portal Group ID||drop-down menu||leave empty or select number of existing portal to use|
|Initiator Group ID||drop-down menu||select which existing initiator group has access to the target|
|Auth Method||drop-down menu||choices are None, Auto, CHAP, or Mutual CHAP|
|Authentication Group number||drop-down menu||None or integer representing number of existing authorized access|
In iSCSI, the target virtualizes something and presents it as a device to the iSCSI client. That something can be a device extent or a file extent:
Device extent: virtualizes an unformatted physical disk, RAID controller, zvol, zvol snapshot, or an existing HAST device.
Virtualizing a single disk is slow as there is no caching but virtualizing a hardware RAID controller has higher performance due to its cache. This type of virtualization does a pass-through to the disk or hardware RAID controller. None of the benefits of ZFS are provided and performance is limited to the capabilities of the disk or controller.
Virtualizing a zvol adds the benefits of ZFS such as its read cache and write cache. Even if the client formats the device extent with a different filesystem, as far as FreeNAS® is concerned, the data benefits from ZFS features such as block checksums and snapshots.
When determining whether or not to use a file or a device extent, be aware that a zvol is required to take advantage of all VAAI primitives and is recommended when using virtualization software as the iSCSI initiator. The ATS, WRITE SAME, XCOPY and STUN, primitives are supported by both file and device extents. The UNMAP primitive is supported by zvols and raw SSDs. The threshold warnings primitive is fully supported by zvols and partially supported by file extents.
File extent: allows you to export a portion of a ZFS volume. The advantage of a file extent is that you can create multiple exports per volume.
for performance reasons and to avoid excessive fragmentation, it is recommended to keep the used space of the pool below 50% when using iSCSI. As required, you can increase the capacity of an existing extent using the instructions in Growing LUNs.
To add an extent, go to Services ‣ ISCSI ‣ Extents ‣ Add Extent. In the example shown in Figure 10.5h, the device extent is using the
export zvol that was previously created from the
Table 10.5f summarizes the settings that can be configured when creating an extent. Note that file extent creation will fail if you do not append the name of the file to be created to the volume/dataset name.
Figure 10.5h: Adding an iSCSI Extent
Table 10.5f: Extent Configuration Settings
|Extent Name||string||name of extent; if the “Extent size” is not 0, it can not be an existing file within the volume/dataset|
|Extent Type||drop-down menu||select from File or Device|
|Serial||string||unique LUN ID; the default is generated from the system’s MAC address|
|Path to the extent||browse button||only appears if File is selected; either browse to an existing file and use 0 as the “Extent size”, or browse to the volume or dataset, click the “Close” button, append the “Extent Name” to the path, and specify a value in “Extent size”|
|Device||drop-down menu||only appears if Device is selected; select the unformatted disk, controller, zvol, zvol snapshot, or HAST device|
|Extent size||integer||only appears if File is selected; if the size is specified as 0, the file must already exist and the actual file size will be used; otherwise, specify the size of the file to create|
|Logical Block Size||drop-down menu||only override the default if the initiator requires a different block size|
|Disable Physical Block Size Reporting||checkbox||if the initiator does not support physical block size values over 4K (MS SQL), check this box|
|Available Space Threshold||string||only appears if File or a zvol is selected; when the specified percentage of free space is reached, the system will issue an alert|
|Enable TPC||checkbox||if checked, an initiator can bypass normal access control and access any scannable target; this allows xcopy operations otherwise blocked by access control|
|Xen initiator compat mode||checkbox||check this box when using Xen as the iSCSI initiator|
|LUN RPM||drop-down menu||do NOT change this setting when using Windows as the initiator; only needs to be changed in large environments where the number of systems using a specific RPM is needed for accurate reporting statistics|
|Read-only||checkbox||check this box to prevent the initiator from initializing this LUN|
The last step is associating an extent to a target within Sharing ‣ Block (iSCSI) ‣ Target/Extents ‣ Add Target/Extent. This screen is shown in Figure 10.5i. Use the drop-down menus to select the existing target and extent.
Figure 10.5i: Associating a Target With an Extent
Table 10.5g summarizes the settings that can be configured when associating targets and extents.
Table 10.5g: Target/Extents Configuration Settings
|Target||drop-down menu||select the pre-created target|
|LUN ID||drop-down menu||the default of Auto will use the next available LUN ID; alternately, select the value of the ID or type in the desired value|
|Extent||drop-down menu||select the pre-created extent|
It is recommended to always associate extents to targets in a 1:1 manner, even though the GUI will allow multiple extents to be associated with the same target.
Once iSCSI has been configured, don’t forget to start it in Services ‣ Control Services. Click the red “OFF” button next to iSCSI. After a second or so, it will change to a blue ON, indicating that the service has started.
10.5.8. Connecting to iSCSI¶
In order to access the iSCSI target, clients will need to use iSCSI initiator software.
An iSCSI Initiator client is pre-installed with Windows 7. A detailed how-to for this client can be found here. A client for Windows 2000, XP, and 2003 can be found here. This how-to shows how to create an iSCSI target for a Windows 7 system.
Mac OS X does not include an initiator. globalSAN is a commercial, easy-to-use Mac initiator.
BSD systems provide command line initiators: iscontrol(8) comes with FreeBSD versions 9.x and lower, iscsictl(8) comes with FreeBSD versions 10.0 and higher, iscsi-initiator(8) comes with NetBSD, and iscsid(8) comes with OpenBSD.
Some Linux distros provide the command line utility iscsiadm from Open-iSCSI. Use a web search to see if a package exists for your distribution should the command not exist on your Linux system.
If you add a LUN while iscsiadm is already connected, it will not see the new LUN until you rescan using iscsiadm -m node -R. Alternately, use iscsiadm -m discovery -t st -p portal_IP to find the new LUN and iscsiadm -m node -T LUN_Name -l to log into the LUN.
Instructions for connecting from a VMware ESXi Server can be found at How to configure FreeNAS 8 for iSCSI and connect to ESX(i). Note that the requirements for booting vSphere 4.x off iSCSI differ between ESX and ESXi. ESX requires a hardware iSCSI adapter while ESXi requires specific iSCSI boot firmware support. The magic is on the booting host side, meaning that there is no difference to the FreeNAS® configuration. See the iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide for details.
If you can see the target but not connect to it, check the “Discovery Auth” settings in “Target Global Configuration”.
If the LUN is not discovered by ESXi, make sure that promiscuous mode is set to “Accept” in the vSwitch.
10.5.9. Growing LUNs¶
The method used to grow the size of an existing iSCSI LUN depends on whether the LUN is backed by a file extent or a zvol. Both methods are described in this section.
After the LUN is expanded using one of the methods below, use the tools from the initiator software to grow the partitions and the filesystems it contains.
10.5.9.1. Zvol Based LUN¶
To grow a zvol based LUN, go to Storage ‣ Volumes ‣ View Volumes, highlight the zvol to be grown, and click its “Edit zvol” button. In the example shown in Figure 10.5j, the current size of the zvol named zvol1 is 4GB.
Figure 10.5j: Editing an Existing Zvol
Input the new size for the zvol in the “Size” field and click the “Edit ZFS Volume” button. This menu will close and the new size for the zvol will immediately show in the “Used” column of the “View Volumes” screen.
10.5.9.2. File Extent Based LUN¶
To grow a file extent based LUN, go to Services ‣ iSCSI ‣ File Extents ‣ View File Extents to determine the path of the file extent to
grow. Open Shell to grow the extent. This example grows
/mnt/volume1/data by 2G:
truncate -s +2g /mnt/volume1/data
Go back to Services ‣ iSCSI ‣ File Extents ‣ View File Extents and click the “Edit” button for the file extent. Set the size to 0 as this causes the iSCSI target to use the new size of the file.