Since FreeNAS® 9.2.0 is based on FreeBSD 9.2, it supports the same hardware found in the amd64 and i386 sections of the FreeBSD 9.2 Hardware Compatibility List.
Actual hardware requirements will vary depending upon what you are using your FreeNAS® system for. This section provides some guidelines to get you started. You can also skim through the FreeNAS® Hardware Forum for performance tips from other FreeNAS® users or to post questions regarding the hardware best suited to meet your requirements.
While FreeNAS® is available for both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures, 64-bit hardware is recommended for speed and performance. A 32-bit system can only address up to 4 GB of RAM, making it poorly suited to the RAM requirements of ZFS. If you only have access to a 32-bit system, consider using UFS instead of ZFS.
The best way to get the most out of your FreeNAS® system is to install as much RAM as possible. If your RAM is limited, consider using UFS until you can afford better hardware. FreeNAS® with ZFS typically requires a minimum of 8 GB of RAM in order to provide good performance and stability. The more RAM, the better the performance, and the FreeNAS® Forums provide anecdotal evidence from users on how much performance is gained by adding more RAM. For systems with large disk capacity (greater than 8 TB), a general rule of thumb is 1 GB of RAM for every 1 TB of storage. This post describes how RAM is used by ZFS.
If you plan to use your server for home use, you can often ignore the thumbrule of 1 GB of RAM for every 1 TB of storage. If performance is inadequate you should consider adding more RAM as a first remedy. The sweet spot for most users in home/small business is 16GB of RAM.
It is possible to use ZFS on systems with less than 8 GB of RAM. However, FreeNAS® as distributed is configured to be suitable for systems meeting the sizing recommendations above. If you wish to use ZFS on a smaller memory system, some tuning will be necessary, and performance will be (likely substantially) reduced. ZFS will automatically disable pre-fetching (caching) on systems where it is not able to use at least 4 GB of memory just for ZFS cache and data structures. This post describes many of the relevant tunables.
If your system supports it and your budget allows for it, install ECC RAM.
If you plan to use ZFS deduplication, a general rule of thumb is 5 GB RAM per TB of storage to be deduplicated. Note that there is no upper limit to how much RAM you may need for deduplication. If you do not have enough RAM you may not be able to mount your pool on bootup. In this case, the only solution is to install more RAM or restore from backup. Very few users will find deduplication provides space savings over using compression.
If you use Active Directory with FreeNAS®, add an additional 2 GB of RAM for winbind's internal cache above and beyond all other RAM requirements.
If you are installing FreeNAS® on a headless system, disable the shared memory settings for the video card in the BIOS.
If you only plan to use UFS you may be able to get by with as little as 2GB of RAM.
If you don't have at least 8GB of RAM with ZFS or 2GB of RAM with UFS, you should consider getting more powerful hardware before using FreeNAS® to store your data otherwise data loss may result.
Compact or USB Flash
The FreeNAS® operating system is a running image. This means that it should not be installed onto a hard drive, but rather to a USB or compact flash device that is at least 2 GB in size. If you don't have compact flash, you can instead use a USB thumb drive that is dedicated to the running image and which stays inserted in the USB slot. While technically you can install FreeNAS® onto a hard drive, this is discouraged as you will lose the storage capacity of the drive. In other words, the operating system will take over the drive and will not allow you to store data on it, regardless of the size of the drive.
The FreeNAS® installation will partition the operating system drive into two partitions. One partition holds the current operating system and the other partition is used when you upgrade. This allows you to safely upgrade to a new image or to revert to an older image should you encounter problems.
USB 3.0 support is disabled by default as it currently is not compatible with some hardware, including Haswell (Lynx point) chipsets. If you receive a "failed with error 19" message when trying to boot FreeNAS®, make sure that xHCI/USB3 is disabled in the system BIOS. While this will downclock the USB ports to 2.0, the bootup and shutdown times will not be significantly different. To see if USB 3.0 support works with your hardware, create a Tunable named xhci_load, set its value to YES, and reboot the system.
Storage Disks and Controllers
The Disk section of the FreeBSD Hardware List lists the supported disk controllers. In addition, support for 3ware 6gbps RAID controllers has been added along with the CLI utility tw_cli for managing 3ware RAID controllers.
FreeNAS® supports hot pluggable drives. Make sure that AHCI is enabled in the BIOS. Note that hot plugging is not the same as hot swapping.
If you need reliable disk alerting, immediate reporting of a failed drive, and or swapping, use a fully manageable hardware RAID controller such as a LSI MegaRAID controller or a 3Ware twa-compatible controller. The current FreeBSD ZFS implementation will not notice that a drive is gone until you reboot or put the volume on high load. More information about LSI cards and FreeNAS® can be found in this forum post.
Suggestions for testing disks before adding them to a RAID array can be found in this forum post.
This article provides a good overview of hard drives which are well suited for a NAS.
If you have some money to spend and wish to optimize your disk subsystem, consider your read/write needs, your budget, and your RAID requirements.
If you have steady, non-contiguous writes, use disks with low seek times. Examples are 10K or 15K SAS drives which cost about $1/GB. An example configuration would be six 600 GB 15K SAS drives in a RAID 10 which would yield 1.8 TB of usable space or eight 600 GB 15K SAS drives in a RAID 10 which would yield 2.4 TB of usable space.
7200 RPM SATA disks are designed for single-user sequential I/O and are not a good choice for multi-user writes.
If you have the budget and high performance is a key requirement, consider a Fusion-I/O card which is optimized for massive random access. These cards are expensive and are suited for high end systems that demand performance. A Fusion-I/O can be formatted with a filesystem and used as direct storage; when used this way, it does not have the write issues typically associated with a flash device. A Fusion-I/O can also be used as a cache device when your ZFS dataset size is bigger than your RAM. Due to the increased throughput, systems running these cards typically use multiple 10 GigE network interfaces.
If you will be using ZFS, Disk Space Requirements for ZFS Storage Pools recommends a minimum of 16 GB of disk space. Due to the way that ZFS creates swap, you can not format less than 3 GB of space with ZFS . However, on a drive that is below the minimum recommended size you lose a fair amount of storage space to swap: for example, on a 4 GB drive, 2 GB will be reserved for swap.
If you are new to ZFS and are purchasing hardware, read through ZFS Storage Pools Recommendations first.
ZFS uses dynamic block sizing, meaning that it is capable of striping different sized disks. However, if you care about performance, use disks of the same size. Further, when creating a RAIDZ, only the size of the smallest disk will be used on each disk.
The Ethernet section of the FreeBSD Hardware Notes indicates which interfaces are supported by each driver. While many interfaces are supported, FreeNAS® users have seen the best performance from Intel and Chelsio interfaces, so consider these brands if you are purchasing a new interface. Realteks will perform poorly under CPU load as interfaces with these chipsets do not provide their own processors.
At a minimum you will want to use a GigE interface. While GigE interfaces and switches are affordable for home use, it should be noted that modern disks can easily saturate 110 MB/s. If you require a higher network throughput, you can "bond" multiple GigE cards together using the LACP type of Link Aggregation. However, any switches will need to support LACP which means you will need a more expensive managed switch rather than a home user grade switch.
If you are not fully familiar with the limitations of LACP you should do your research before attempting to setup LACP. It does not give you 2Gb/sec of throughput to your client machine. Generally speaking, unless you plan to use 10+ machines for your server LACP will not provide a benefit.
If network performance is a requirement and you have some money to spend, use 10 GigE interfaces and a managed switch. If you are purchasing a managed switch, consider one that supports LACP and jumbo frames as both can be used to increase network throughput.
NOTE: at this time the following are not supported: InfiniBand, FibreChannel over Ethernet, or wireless interfaces.
If network speed is a requirement, consider both your hardware and the type of shares that you create. On the same hardware, CIFS will be slower than FTP or NFS as Samba is single-threaded. If you will be using CIFS, use a fast CPU.
Wake on LAN (WOL) support is dependent upon the FreeBSD driver for the interface. If the driver supports WOL, it can be enabled using ifconfig(8). To determine if WOL is supported on a particular interface, specify the interface name to the following command. In this example, the capabilities line indicates that WOL is supported for the re0 interface:
ifconfig -m em0 re0: flags=8943<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,PROMISC,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500 options=42098<VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,VLAN_HWCSUM,WOL_MAGIC,VLAN_HWTSO> capabilities=5399b<RXCSUM,TXCSUM,VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,VLAN_HWCSUM,TSO4,WOL_UCAST,WOL_MCAST, WOL_MAGIC,VLAN_HWFILTER,VLAN_H WTSO>
If you find that WOL support is indicated but not working for a particular interface, submit a bug report.
Data redundancy and speed are important considerations for any network attached storage system. Most NAS systems use multiple disks to store data, meaning you should decide which type of RAID to use before installing FreeNAS®. This section provides an overview of RAID types to assist you in deciding which type best suits your requirements.
RAID 0 (stripe): provides optimal performance and allows you to add disks as needed. Provides zero redundancy, meaning if one disk fails, all of the data on all of the disks is lost. The more disks in the RAID 0, the more likely the chance of a failure.
RAID 1 (mirror): provides redundancy as data is copied (mirrored) to two or more drives. Provides good read performance but may have slower write performance, depending upon how the mirrors are setup and the number of ZILs and L2ARCs.
RAID 5: requires a minimum of three disks and can tolerate the loss of one disk without losing data. Disk reads are fast but write speed can be reduced by as much as 50%. If a disk fails, it is marked as degraded but the system will continue to operate until the drive is replaced and the RAID is rebuilt. However, should another disk fail before the RAID is rebuilt, all data will be lost. CAUTION: RAID5 "died" back in 2009 and should not be used if reliability of your data is important. Read Why RAID5 stopped working in 2009 for more information.
RAID 6: requires a minimum of four disks and can tolerate the loss of two disks without losing data. Benefits from having many disks as performance, fault tolerance, and cost efficiency are all improved relatively with more disks. The larger the failed drive, the longer it takes to rebuild the array. Reads are very fast but writes are slower than a RAID 5.
RAID 10: requires a minimum of four disks and number of disks is always even as this type of RAID mirrors striped sets. This type of RAID can survive the failure of any one drive. If you lose a second drive from the same mirrored set, you will lose the array. However, if you lose a second drive from a different mirrored set, the array will continue to operate in a degraded state. RAID 10 significantly outperforms RAIDZ2, especially on writes.
RAID 60: requires a minimum of eight disks. Combines RAID 0 striping with the distributed double parity of RAID 6 by striping two 4-disk RAID 6 arrays. RAID 60 rebuild times are half that of RAID 6.
RAIDZ1: ZFS software solution that is equivalent to RAID5. Its advantage over RAID 5 is that it avoids the write-hole and does not require any special hardware, meaning it can be used on commodity disks. If your FreeNAS® system will be used for steady writes, RAIDZ is a poor choice due to the slow write speed. CAUTION: RAIDZ1 "died" back in 2009 and should not be used if reliability of your data is important. Read Why RAID5 stopped working in 2009 for more information. Generally speaking, if you are using a RAIDZ1 pool and you have a single disk failure you can expect to be forced to destroy, recreate, and restore the pool from backup.
RAIDZ2: double-parity ZFS software solution that is similar to RAID-6. It also avoids the write-hole and does not require any special hardware, meaning it can be used on commodity disks. RAIDZ2 allows you to lose one drive without any degradation as it basically becomes a RAIDZ1 until you replace the failed drive and restripe. At this time, RAIDZ2 on FreeBSD is slower than RAIDZ1.
RAIDZ3: triple-parity ZFS software solution. RAIDZ3 offers three parity drives and can operate in degraded mode if up to three drives fail with no restrictions on which drives can fail.
NOTE: instead of mixing ZFS RAID with hardware RAID, it is recommended that you place your hardware RAID controller in JBOD mode and let ZFS handle the RAID. According to Wikipedia: "ZFS can not fully protect the user's data when using a hardware RAID controller, as it is not able to perform the automatic self-healing unless it controls the redundancy of the disks and data. ZFS prefers direct, exclusive access to the disks, with nothing in between that interferes. If the user insists on using hardware-level RAID, the controller should be configured as JBOD mode (i.e. turn off RAID-functionality) for ZFS to be able to guarantee data integrity. Note that hardware RAID configured as JBOD may still detach disks that do not respond in time; and as such may require TLER/CCTL/ERC-enabled disks to prevent drive dropouts. These limitations do not apply when using a non-RAID controller, which is the preferred method of supplying disks to ZFS."
When determining the type of RAIDZ to use, consider whether your goal is to maximum disk space or maximum performance:
- RAIDZ1 maximizes disk space and generally performs well when data is written and read in large chunks (128K or more).
- RAIDZ2 offers better data availability and significantly better mean time to data loss (MTTDL) than RAIDZ1.
- A mirror consumes more disk space but generally performs better with small random reads.
For better performance, a mirror is strongly favored over any RAIDZ, particularly for large, uncacheable, random read loads.
When determining how many disks to use in a RAIDZ, the following configurations provide optimal performance. Array sizes beyond 12 disks are not recommended.
- Start a RAIDZ1 at at 3, 5, or 9, disks.
- Start a RAIDZ2 at 4, 6, or 10 disks.
- Start a RAIDZ3 at 5, 7, or 11 disks.
The recommended number of disks per group is between 3 and 9. If you have more disks, use multiple groups.
The following resources can also help you determine the RAID configuration best suited to your storage needs:
NOTE: NO RAID SOLUTION PROVIDES A REPLACEMENT FOR A RELIABLE BACKUP STRATEGY. BAD STUFF CAN STILL HAPPEN AND YOU WILL BE GLAD THAT YOU BACKED UP YOUR DATA WHEN IT DOES. See the sections on Periodic Snapshot Tasks and Replication Tasks if you would like to use ZFS snapshots and rsync as part of your backup strategy.
While ZFS isn't hardware, an overview is included in this section as the decision to use ZFS may impact on your hardware choices and whether or not to use hardware RAID.
If you are new to ZFS, the Wikipedia entry on ZFS provides an excellent starting point to learn about its features. These resources are also useful to bookmark and refer to as needed:
The following is a glossary of terms used by ZFS:
Pool: a collection of devices that provides physical storage and data replication managed by ZFS. This pooled storage model eliminates the concept of volumes and the associated problems of partitions, provisioning, wasted bandwidth and stranded storage. The Storage Pools Recommendations of the ZFS Best Practices Guide provides detailed recommendations for creating the storage pool. In FreeNAS®, ZFS Volume Manager is used to create ZFS pools.
Dataset: once a pool is created, it can be divided into datasets. A dataset is similar to a folder in that it supports permissions. A dataset is also similar to a filesystem in that you can set properties such as quotas and compression.
Zvol: ZFS storage pools can be divided into zvols for applications that need access to a raw device, such as swap devices or iSCSI device extents. In other words, a zvol is a virtual block device in a ZFS storage pool.
Snapshot: a read-only point-in-time copy of a filesystem. Snapshots can be created quickly and, if little data changes, new snapshots take up very little space. For example, a snapshot where no files have changed takes 0MB of storage, but if you change a 10 GB file it will keep a copy of both the old and the new 10 GB version. Snapshots provide a clever way of keeping a history of files, should you need to recover an older copy or even a deleted file. For this reason, many administrators take snapshots often (e.g. every 15 minutes), store them for a period of time (e.g. for a month), and store them on another system. Such a strategy allows the administrator to roll the system back to a specific time or, if there is a catastrophic loss, an off-site snapshot can restore the system up to the last snapshot interval (e.g. within 15 minutes of the data loss). Snapshots can be cloned or rolled back, but the files on the snapshot cannot be accessed independently.
Clone: a writable copy of a snapshot which can only be created on the same ZFS volume. Clones provide an extremely space-efficient way to store many copies of mostly-shared data such as workspaces, software installations, and diskless clients. Clones do not inherit the properties of the parent dataset, but rather inherit the properties based on where the clone is created in the ZFS pool. Because a clone initially shares all its disk space with the original snapshot, its used property is initially zero. As changes are made to the clone, it uses more space.
Deduplication: the process of eliminating duplicate copies of data in order to save space. Once deduplicaton occurs, it can improve ZFS performance as less data is written and stored. However, the process of deduplicating the data is RAM intensive and a general rule of thumb is 5 GB RAM per TB of storage to be deduplicated. In most cases, enabling compression will provide comparable performance. Beginning with FreeNAS® 8.3.0, deduplication can be enabled at the dataset level and there is no way to undedup data once it is deduplicated: switching deduplication off has NO AFFECT on existing data. The more data you write to a deduplicated dataset, the more RAM it requires, and there is no upper bound on this. When the system starts storing the DDTs (dedup tables) on disk because they no longer fit into RAM, performance craters. Furthermore, importing an unclean pool can require between 3-5 GB of RAM per TB of deduped data, and if the system doesn't have the needed RAM it will panic, with the only solution being to add more RAM or to recreate the pool. Think carefully before enabling dedup!
ZIL: (ZFS Intent Log) is effectively a filesystem journal that manages writes. The ZIL is a temporary storage area for sync writes until they are written asynchronously to the ZFS pool. If the system has many sync writes, such as from a database server, performance can be increased by adding a dedicated log device (slog) using ZFS Volume Manager. If the system has few sync writes, a slog will not speed up writes to the pool. A more detailed explanation can be found in this forum post.
A dedicated log device will have no affect on CIFS, AFP, or iSCSI as these protocols rarely use sync writes. A dedicated log device can increase write performance over NFS, especially for ESXi. When creating a dedicated log device, it is recommended to use a fast SSD with a supercapacitor or a bank of capacitors that can handle writing the contents of the SSD's RAM to the SSD. If you don't have access to such an SSD, try disabling sync writes on the NFS dataset using zfs(8) instead.
If you decide to create a dedicated log device to speed up NFS writes, the SSD can be half the size of system RAM as anything larger than that is unused capacity. The log device should be mirrored on a ZFSv15 pool because if one of the log devices fails, the pool is unrecoverable and the pool must be recreated and the data restored from a backup. The log device does not need to be mirrored on a ZFSv28 pool as the system will revert to using the ZIL if the log device fails and only the data in the device which had not been written to the pool will be lost (typically the last few seconds of writes). You can replace the lost log device in the View Volumes → Volume Status screen. Note that a dedicated log device can not be shared between ZFS pools and that the same device cannot hold both a log and a cache device.
L2ARC: ZFS uses a RAM cache to reduce read latency. If an SSD is dedicated as a cache device, it is known as an L2ARC and ZFS uses it to store more reads which can increase random read performance. However, adding a cache device will not improve a system with too little RAM and will actually decrease performance as ZFS uses RAM to track the contents of L2ARC. RAM is always faster than disks, so always add as much RAM as possible before determining if the system would benefit from a L2ARC device.
If you have a lot of applications that do large amounts of random read, on a dataset small enough to fit into the L2ARC, read performance may be increased by adding a dedicated cache device using ZFS Volume Manager. SSD cache devices only help if your working set is larger than system RAM, but small enough that a significant percentage of it will fit on the SSD. After adding an L2ARC, monitor its effectiveness using tools such as Arcstat. If you need to increase the size of an existing L2ARC, you can stripe another cache device by adding another device. The GUI will always stripe L2ARC, not mirror it, as the contents of L2ARC are recreated at boot.
Losing an L2ARC device will not affect the integrity of the pool, but may have an impact on read performance, depending upon the workload and the ratio of dataset size to cache size. Note that a dedicated L2ARC device can not be shared between ZFS pools.
Scrub: similar to ECC memory scrubbing, all data is read to detect latent errors while they are still correctable. A scrub traverses the entire storage pool to read every data block, validates it against its 256-bit checksum, and repairs it if necessary.